Gynecomastia medical therapy

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]


Overview

Gynecomastia is usually a self-limited condition, reassurance and follow-ups are recommended. Causative medications should be withheld and any underlying condition leading to gynecomastia should be thoroughly investigated and treated. Pharmacologic therapy is beneficial for the first several months until fibrous tissue replaces the glandular tissuePharmacologic options include SERMsandrogens and aromatase inhibitors.

Medical Therapy

  • Asymptomatic gynecomastia usually does not require treatment; reassurance is all that is required.
  • Treatment of symptomatic gynecomastia (discomfort, tenderness, psychological stress) is guided by the patient's goal.
  • In gynecomastia with the identifiable underlying cause, treatment of that underlying cause can address the symptoms.
  • If the gynecomastia is believed to be a medication effect, withdrawal of that medication should lead to improvement over a period of a few months.

Pharmacologic therapy

Pharmacologic medical therapies for gynecomastia include:[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Androgens

Aromatase inhibitors

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)

References

  1. Narula HS, Carlson HE (2007). "Gynecomastia". Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 36 (2): 497–519. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2007.03.013. PMID 17543732.
  2. Braunstein GD (2007). "Clinical practice. Gynecomastia". N Engl J Med. 357 (12): 1229–37. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp070677. PMID 17881754.
  3. Biro FM, Lucky AW, Huster GA, Morrison JA (1990). "Hormonal studies and physical maturation in adolescent gynecomastia". J. Pediatr. 116 (3): 450–5. PMID 2137877.
  4. Friedman NM, Plymate SR (1980). "Leydig cell dysfunction and gynaecomastia in adult males treated with alkylating agents". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 12 (6): 553–6. PMID 6772358.
  5. Carlson HE (2011). "Approach to the patient with gynecomastia". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-1720. PMID 21209041.
  6. Johnson RE, Kermott CA, Murad MH (2011). "Gynecomastia - evaluation and current treatment options". Ther Clin Risk Manag. 7: 145–8. doi:10.2147/TCRM.S10181. PMC 3071351. PMID 21479145.



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