Gynecomastia epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]

Overview

Gynecomastia has the highest prevalence in elderly and neonatal age. Gynecomastia has trimodal age distribution with no racial preference.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

  • The prevalence of gynecomastia in infants ranges from 60,000 per 100,000 to 90,000 per 100,000.[1]
  • The prevalence of gynecomastia in pubertal age ranges from 4,000 per 100,000 to 69,000 per 100,000.[2]
  • The prevalence of gynecomastia in elderly (50-80 years) ranges from 24,000 per 100,000 to 65,000 per 100,000.[3]

Age

  • Gynecomastia has trimodal distribution.[1]
  • The first peak is found in the neonatal period affecting 60-90 percent of all newborns. Infant transient gynecomastia regresses in two to three weeks after delivery. The second peak is during puberty and it declines in the late teenage years. The last peak is found in elderly with age ranging from 50 to 80years olds.[4]

Race

Gender

Region

  • There is insufficient evidence of gynecomastia distribution on geographical basis.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Braunstein GD (1993). "Gynecomastia". N Engl J Med. 328 (7): 490–5. doi:10.1056/NEJM199302183280708. PMID 8421478.
  2. Ma NS, Geffner ME (2008). "Gynecomastia in prepubertal and pubertal men". Curr Opin Pediatr. 20 (4): 465–70. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e328305e415. PMID 18622206.
  3. Abaci A, Buyukgebiz A (2007). "Gynecomastia: review". Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 5 (1): 489–99. PMID 17925790.
  4. Johnson RE, Murad MH (2009). "Gynecomastia: pathophysiology, evaluation, and management". Mayo Clin Proc. 84 (11): 1010–5. doi:10.1016/S0025-6196(11)60671-X. PMC 2770912. PMID 19880691.
  5. Harlan WR, Grillo GP, Cornoni-Huntley J, Leaverton PE (1979). "Secondary sex characteristics of boys 12 to 17 years of age: the U.S. Health Examination Survey". J. Pediatr. 95 (2): 293–7. PMID 448573.



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