Gynecomastia causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]

Overview

Common known causes of gynecomastia include physiological hormonal changes, use of medications and pathological entities such as cirrhosishyperthyroidismtesticular tumors and hypogonadism. Less common causes include androgen insensitivity syndromeKallmann syndrome, defects of testosterone pathway and tumors.

Causes

Life-threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated. There are no known life-threatening causes of gynecomastia.

Common Causes

Less Common Causes[10]

To review a complete list of gynecomastia causes, click here.

Genetic Causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Causes of gynecomastia in alphabetical order:[11][12]

References

  1. Deepinder F, Braunstein GD (2012). "Drug-induced gynecomastia: an evidence-based review". Expert Opin Drug Saf. 11 (5): 779–95. doi:10.1517/14740338.2012.712109. PMID 22862307.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Braunstein GD (2007). "Clinical practice. Gynecomastia". N Engl J Med. 357 (12): 1229–37. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp070677. PMID 17881754.
  3. Lainscak M, Pelliccia F, Rosano G, Vitale C, Schiariti M, Greco C; et al. (2015). "Safety profile of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: Spironolactone and eplerenone". Int J Cardiol. 200: 25–9. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.127. PMID 26404748.
  4. Henley DV, Lipson N, Korach KS, Bloch CA (2007). "Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils". N Engl J Med. 356 (5): 479–85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa064725. PMID 17267908.
  5. Vandeven H, Pensler J. PMID 28613563. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. 6.0 6.1 De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, Feingold KR, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Koch C, Korbonits M, McLachlan R, New M, Purnell J, Rebar R, Singer F, Vinik A, Swerdloff RS, Ng J. PMID 25905330. Vancouver style error: initials (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. Ladizinski B, Lee KC, Nutan FN, Higgins HW, Federman DG (2014). "Gynecomastia: etiologies, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management". South Med J. 107 (1): 44–9. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0000000000000033. PMID 24389786.
  8. Wagner MS, Wajner SM, Maia AL (2008). "The role of thyroid hormone in testicular development and function". J Endocrinol. 199 (3): 351–65. doi:10.1677/JOE-08-0218. PMC 2799043. PMID 18728126.
  9. Cavanaugh J, Niewoehner CB, Nuttall FQ (1990). "Gynecomastia and cirrhosis of the liver". Arch. Intern. Med. 150 (3): 563–5. PMID 2310274.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Shozu M, Sebastian S, Takayama K, Hsu WT, Schultz RA, Neely K; et al. (2003). "Estrogen excess associated with novel gain-of-function mutations affecting the aromatase gene". N Engl J Med. 348 (19): 1855–65. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021559. PMID 12736278.
  11. Sailer, Christian, Wasner, Susanne. Differential Diagnosis Pocket. Hermosa Beach, CA: Borm Bruckmeir Publishing LLC, 2002:77 ISBN 1591032016
  12. Kahan, Scott, Smith, Ellen G. In A Page: Signs and Symptoms. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2004:68 ISBN 140510368X

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