FLNC (gene)

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
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Filamin-C (FLN-C) also known as actin-binding-like protein (ABPL) or filamin-2 (FLN2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLNC gene.[1][2][3] Filamin-C is mainly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles, and functions at Z-discs and in subsarcolemmal regions.

Structure

Filamin-C is a 290.8 kDa protein composed of 2725 amino acids.[4][5] Filamin-C, like the ubiquitously-expressed isoform Filamin-A, have an N-terminal filamentous actin-binding domain, followed by a lengthy C-terminal self-association domain containing a series of immunoglobulin-like domains, and a membrane glycoprotein-binding domain.[6] Filamin-C interacts with γ-sarcoglycan and δ-sarcoglycan at the sarcolemma;[7][7][8][8] myotilin and FATZ/calsarcin/myozenin at Z-lines,[9][10][11][12] as well as LL5β.[13] Filamin-C has also been shown to interact with INPPL1,[14] KCND2,[15] and MAP2K4.[16]

Function

The family of Filamin proteins crosslink actin filaments into orthogonal networks in cortical cytoplasm and participate in the anchoring of membrane proteins for the actin cytoskeleton. However, the precise function of the Filamin-C isoform is still under investigation. As Filamin-C is localized mainly to striated muscle, its functions are likely specific to the specialized sarcomeric cytoskeleton present in muscle. As Filamin-C is found at both subsarcolemmal regions and at Z-lines, one plausible function of Filamin-C would be to act as a mode of communication between the membrane and the sarcomere. In skeletal muscle, Filamin-C is found at sites of core formation in skeletal myopathies,[17] and alterations in subcellular localization of Filamin-C have been exhibited in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.[18]

Clinical significance

Mutations in Filamin C have been associated with human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy[19] and a higher incidence of sudden cardiac death.[20] Expression of mutant protein in rat cardiac cells demonstrated that mutant Filamin C forms aggregates, which may provide a mechanistic link to the observed cardiac dysfunction.[20] Deficiency of this protein has been associated with muscle weakness.[21]

References

  1. Maestrini E, Patrosso C, Mancini M, Rivella S, Rocchi M, Repetto M, Villa A, Frattini A, Zoppè M, Vezzoni P (June 1993). "Mapping of two genes encoding isoforms of the actin binding protein ABP-280, a dystrophin like protein, to Xq28 and to chromosome 7". Human Molecular Genetics. 2 (6): 761–6. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.6.761. PMID 7689010.
  2. Gariboldi M, Maestrini E, Canzian F, Manenti G, De Gregorio L, Rivella S, Chatterjee A, Herman GE, Archidiacono N, Antonacci R (May 1994). "Comparative mapping of the actin-binding protein 280 genes in human and mouse". Genomics. 21 (2): 428–30. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1288. PMID 8088838.
  3. "Entrez Gene: FLNC filamin C, gamma (actin binding protein 280)".
  4. "Protein information". © COPaKB.
  5. Zong NC, Li H, Li H, Lam MP, Jimenez RC, Kim CS, Deng N, Kim AK, Choi JH, Zelaya I, Liem D, Meyer D, Odeberg J, Fang C, Lu HJ, Xu T, Weiss J, Duan H, Uhlen M, Yates JR, Apweiler R, Ge J, Hermjakob H, Ping P (October 2013). "Integration of cardiac proteome biology and medicine by a specialized knowledgebase". Circulation Research. 113 (9): 1043–53. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301151. PMC 4076475. PMID 23965338.
  6. van der Flier A, Sonnenberg A (April 2001). "Structural and functional aspects of filamins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1538 (2–3): 99–117. doi:10.1016/s0167-4889(01)00072-6. PMID 11336782.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Guyon JR, Kudryashova E, Potts A, Dalkilic I, Brosius MA, Thompson TG, Beckmann JS, Kunkel LM, Spencer MJ (October 2003). "Calpain 3 cleaves filamin C and regulates its ability to interact with gamma- and delta-sarcoglycans". Muscle & Nerve. 28 (4): 472–83. doi:10.1002/mus.10465. PMID 14506720.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Thompson TG, Chan YM, Hack AA, Brosius M, Rajala M, Lidov HG, McNally EM, Watkins S, Kunkel LM (January 2000). "Filamin 2 (FLN2): A muscle-specific sarcoglycan interacting protein". The Journal of Cell Biology. 148 (1): 115–26. doi:10.1083/jcb.148.1.115. PMC 3207142. PMID 10629222.
  9. van der Ven PF, Wiesner S, Salmikangas P, Auerbach D, Himmel M, Kempa S, Hayess K, Pacholsky D, Taivainen A, Schröder R, Carpén O, Fürst DO (October 2000). "Indications for a novel muscular dystrophy pathway. gamma-filamin, the muscle-specific filamin isoform, interacts with myotilin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 151 (2): 235–48. doi:10.1083/jcb.151.2.235. PMC 2192634. PMID 11038172.
  10. Takada F, Vander Woude DL, Tong HQ, Thompson TG, Watkins SC, Kunkel LM, Beggs AH (February 2001). "Myozenin: an alpha-actinin- and gamma-filamin-binding protein of skeletal muscle Z lines". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (4): 1595–600. doi:10.1073/pnas.041609698. PMC 29302. PMID 11171996.
  11. Frey N, Olson EN (April 2002). "Calsarcin-3, a novel skeletal muscle-specific member of the calsarcin family, interacts with multiple Z-disc proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (16): 13998–4004. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200712200. PMID 11842093.
  12. Faulkner G, Pallavicini A, Comelli A, Salamon M, Bortoletto G, Ievolella C, Trevisan S, Kojic' S, Dalla Vecchia F, Laveder P, Valle G, Lanfranchi G (December 2000). "FATZ, a filamin-, actinin-, and telethonin-binding protein of the Z-disc of skeletal muscle". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (52): 41234–42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M007493200. PMID 10984498.
  13. Paranavitane V, Coadwell WJ, Eguinoa A, Hawkins PT, Stephens L (January 2003). "LL5beta is a phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate sensor that can bind the cytoskeletal adaptor, gamma-filamin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (2): 1328–35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208352200. PMID 12376540.
  14. Dyson JM, O'Malley CJ, Becanovic J, Munday AD, Berndt MC, Coghill ID, Nandurkar HH, Ooms LM, Mitchell CA (December 2001). "The SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, SHIP-2, binds filamin and regulates submembraneous actin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 155 (6): 1065–79. doi:10.1083/jcb.200104005. PMC 2150887. PMID 11739414.
  15. Petrecca K, Miller DM, Shrier A (December 2000). "Localization and enhanced current density of the Kv4.2 potassium channel by interaction with the actin-binding protein filamin". The Journal of Neuroscience. 20 (23): 8736–44. PMID 11102480.
  16. Marti A, Luo Z, Cunningham C, Ohta Y, Hartwig J, Stossel TP, Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (January 1997). "Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of SAPK in melanoma cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (5): 2620–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.5.2620. PMID 9006895.
  17. Bönnemann CG, Thompson TG, van der Ven PF, Goebel HH, Warlo I, Vollmers B, Reimann J, Herms J, Gautel M, Takada F, Beggs AH, Fürst DO, Kunkel LM, Hanefeld F, Schröder R (January 2003). "Filamin C accumulation is a strong but nonspecific immunohistochemical marker of core formation in muscle". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 206 (1): 71–8. doi:10.1016/s0022-510x(02)00341-6. PMID 12480088.
  18. Thompson TG, Chan YM, Hack AA, Brosius M, Rajala M, Lidov HG, McNally EM, Watkins S, Kunkel LM (January 2000). "Filamin 2 (FLN2): A muscle-specific sarcoglycan interacting protein". The Journal of Cell Biology. 148 (1): 115–26. doi:10.1083/jcb.148.1.115. PMC 3207142. PMID 10629222.
  19. Brodehl A, Ferrier RA, Hamilton SJ, Greenway SC, Brundler MA, Yu W, Gibson WT, McKinnon ML, McGillivray B, Alvarez N, Giuffre M, Schwartzentruber J, Gerull B, FORGE Canada Consortium (2016). "Mutations in FLNC are Associated with Familial Restrictive Cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 37 (3): 269–79. doi:10.1002/humu.22942. PMID 26666891.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Valdés-Mas R, Gutiérrez-Fernández A, Gómez J, Coto E, Astudillo A, Puente DA, Reguero JR, Álvarez V, Morís C, León D, Martín M, Puente XS, López-Otín C (October 2014). "Mutations in filamin C cause a new form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Nature Communications. 5: 5326. doi:10.1038/ncomms6326. PMID 25351925.
  21. Guergueltcheva V, Peeters K, Baets J, Ceuterick-de Groote C, Martin JJ, Suls A, De Vriendt E, Mihaylova V, Chamova T, Almeida-Souza L, Ydens E, Tzekov C, Hadjidekov G, Gospodinova M, Storm K, Reyniers E, Bichev S, van der Ven PF, Fürst DO, Mitev V, Lochmüller H, Timmerman V, Tournev I, De Jonghe P, Jordanova A (December 2011). "Distal myopathy with upper limb predominance caused by filamin C haploinsufficiency". Neurology. 77 (24): 2105–14. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31823dc51e. PMID 22131542.

Further reading

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