Myasthenia gravis history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


History: Female Gender, african/Americans race, evidence of coexisting autoimmune diseases, a positive history of: Heavy eyelids and double vision , eye movement problems

Photophobia , facial weakness, tongue weakness, chewing and swallowing problems, respiratory problems, limbs muscles weakness, Fatigue and urinary incontinency.symptoms: Ptosis and diplopia, gaze paralysis, photophobia, facial weakness, orbicularis oculi weakness, tongue weakness (chewing problems and dysphagia), respiratory problems, limbs muscles weakness, fatigue and pelvic floor weakness.

History and Symptoms


Common symptoms

  • tongue weakness, chewing problems and dysphagia
    • The muscles of the tongue will become weak in MG patients especially after long speech. This can lead to unintelligible speech and dysphasia. Difficulty in swallowing can cause choking and nasal regurgitation. Furthermore the weakness of mastication muscles will cause chewing problem and can lead to weight loss.[9][10]
  • Respiratory problems
    • Inability to maintain a patent airway or respiratory insufficiency can occur in MG patients especially those who are in the MG crises.[11]
    • Respiratory problems can cause inadequate sleep and day time somnolence.[12]

Less common symptoms


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  2. Phillips LH, Torner JC, Anderson MS, Cox GM (October 1992). "The epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in central and western Virginia". Neurology. 42 (10): 1888–93. PMID 1407568.
  3. Oh SJ, Morgan MB, Lu L, Hatanaka Y, Hemmi S, Young A, Claussen GC (March 2009). "Racial differences in myasthenia gravis in Alabama". Muscle Nerve. 39 (3): 328–32. doi:10.1002/mus.21191. PMC 2814330. PMID 19127534.
  4. Sanders DB, El-Salem K, Massey JM, McConville J, Vincent A (June 2003). "Clinical aspects of MuSK antibody positive seronegative MG". Neurology. 60 (12): 1978–80. PMID 12821744.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Osher RH, Glaser JS (March 1980). "Myasthenic sustained gaze fatigue". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89 (3): 443–5. PMID 7369304.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Spooner JW, Baloh RW (January 1979). "Eye movement fatigue in myasthenia gravis". Neurology. 29 (1): 29–33. PMID 570673.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lepore FE, Sanborn GE, Slevin JT (July 1979). "Pupillary dysfunction in myasthenia gravis". Ann. Neurol. 6 (1): 29–33. doi:10.1002/ana.410060107. PMID 228589.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Patten BM (1978). "Myasthenia gravis: review of diagnosis and management". Muscle Nerve. 1 (3): 190–205. doi:10.1002/mus.880010304. PMID 86952.
  9. 9.0 9.1 De Assis JL, Marchiori PE, Scaff M (1994). "Atrophy of the tongue with persistent articulation disorder in myasthenia gravis: report of 10 patients". Auris Nasus Larynx. 21 (4): 215–8. PMID 7779022.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Oosterhuis H, Bethlem J (April 1973). "Neurogenic muscle involvement in myasthenia gravis. A clinical and histopathological study". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 36 (2): 244–54. PMC 1083560. PMID 4708458.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Keesey JC (July 2002). ""Crisis" in myasthenia gravis: an historical perspective". Muscle Nerve. 26 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1002/mus.10095. PMID 12115943.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Keesey JC (November 1999). "Does myasthenia gravis affect the brain?". J. Neurol. Sci. 170 (2): 77–89. PMID 10561522.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Jablecki C, Benton A (1982). "The frequency of muscle involvement in myasthenia gravis correlates with mean muscle temperature". Muscle Nerve. 5 (6): 491–2. PMID 6290881.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Engel AG, Lambert EH, Mulder DM, Torres CF, Sahashi K, Bertorini TE, Whitaker JN (June 1982). "A newly recognized congenital myasthenic syndrome attributed to a prolonged open time of the acetylcholine-induced ion channel". Ann. Neurol. 11 (6): 553–69. doi:10.1002/ana.410110603. PMID 6287911.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Oh SJ, Kuruoglu R (June 1992). "Chronic limb-girdle myasthenia gravis". Neurology. 42 (6): 1153–6. PMID 1603341.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Nations SP, Wolfe GI, Amato AA, Jackson CE, Bryan WW, Barohn RJ (February 1999). "Distal myasthenia gravis". Neurology. 52 (3): 632–4. PMID 10025802.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Ochs CW, Bradley RJ, Katholi CR, Byl NN, Brown VM, Jones LL, Shohet JS (1998). "Symptoms of patients with myasthenia gravis receiving treatment". J Med. 29 (1–2): 1–12. PMID 9704288.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Greene LF, Ghosh MK, Howard FM (August 1974). "Transurethral prostatic resection in patients with myasthenia gravis". J. Urol. 112 (2): 226–7. PMID 4843338.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Wise GJ, Gerstenfeld JN, Brunner N, Grob D (August 1982). "Urinary incontinence following prostatectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis". Br J Urol. 54 (4): 369–71. PMID 6180793.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Silvestri NJ, Wolfe GI (July 2012). "Myasthenia gravis". Semin Neurol. 32 (3): 215–26. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1329200. PMID 23117946.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Keesey JC (April 2004). "Clinical evaluation and management of myasthenia gravis". Muscle Nerve. 29 (4): 484–505. doi:10.1002/mus.20030. PMID 15052614.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Keesey J, Buffkin D, Kebo D, Ho W, Herrmann C (1981). "Plasma exchange alone as therapy for myasthenia gravis". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 377: 729–43. PMID 6951497.
  23. Roberts ME, Steiger MJ, Hart IK (January 2002). "Presentation of myasthenia gravis mimicking blepharospasm". Neurology. 58 (1): 150–1. PMID 11781428.

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