Hypopituitarism risk factors

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Hypopituitarism Microchapters


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ahmed Elsaiey, MBBCH [2] Iqra Qamar M.D.[3]


Common risk factors in the development of hypopituitarism may include pituitary tumor or space occupying lesion, pituitary apoplexy, severe blood loss such as Sheehan's syndrome, pituitary surgery, cranial radiation, genetic defects, hypothalamic disease, immunosuppression, inflammatory processes, pituitary infarction, and non-compliance with hormone replacement therapy. Less common risk factors, include infiltrative disorders, traumatic brain injury causing skull fractures, ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors

Common risk factors of hypopituitarism include the following: [1][2][3][4][3][5][6][7][8]

Less common risk factors

Less common risk factors include:


  1. Khajeh L, Blijdorp K, Neggers SJ, Ribbers GM, Dippel DW, van Kooten F (2014). "Hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage, do we know enough?". BMC Neurol. 14: 205. doi:10.1186/s12883-014-0205-0. PMC 4207357. PMID 25312299.
  2. Vance ML (1994). "Hypopituitarism". N. Engl. J. Med. 330 (23): 1651–62. doi:10.1056/NEJM199406093302306. PMID 8043090.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jahangiri A, Wagner JR, Han SW, Tran MT, Miller LM, Chen R, Tom MW, Ostling LR, Kunwar S, Blevins L, Aghi MK (2016). "Improved versus worsened endocrine function after transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas: rate, time course, and radiological analysis". J. Neurosurg. 124 (3): 589–95. doi:10.3171/2015.1.JNS141543. PMID 26252454.
  4. Snyder PJ, Fowble BF, Schatz NJ, Savino PJ, Gennarelli TA (1986). "Hypopituitarism following radiation therapy of pituitary adenomas". Am. J. Med. 81 (3): 457–62. PMID 3092668.
  5. Littley MD, Shalet SM, Beardwell CG, Ahmed SR, Applegate G, Sutton ML (1989). "Hypopituitarism following external radiotherapy for pituitary tumours in adults". Q. J. Med. 70 (262): 145–60. PMID 2594955.
  6. Eastman RC, Gorden P, Roth J (1979). "Conventional supervoltage irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48 (6): 931–40. doi:10.1210/jcem-48-6-931. PMID 447799.
  7. Harbeck B, Klose S, Buchfelder M, Brabant G, Lehnert H (2011). "Hypopituitarism in a HIV affected patient". Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes. 119 (10): 633–5. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1284366. PMID 21922454.
  8. Morichika D, Sato-Hisamoto A, Hotta K, Takata K, Iwaki N, Uchida K, Minami D, Kubo T, Tanimoto M, Kiura K (2014). "Fatal Candida septic shock during systemic chemotherapy in lung cancer patient receiving corticosteroid replacement therapy for hypopituitarism: a case report". Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 44 (5): 501–5. doi:10.1093/jjco/hyu019. PMID 24646812.
  9. Kaltsas GA, Powles TB, Evanson J, Plowman PN, Drinkwater JE, Jenkins PJ, Monson JP, Besser GM, Grossman AB (2000). "Hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities in adult patients with langerhans cell histiocytosis: clinical, endocrinological, and radiological features and response to treatment". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85 (4): 1370–6. doi:10.1210/jcem.85.4.6501. PMID 10770168.
  10. Edwards OM, Clark JD (1986). "Post-traumatic hypopituitarism. Six cases and a review of the literature". Medicine (Baltimore). 65 (5): 281–90. PMID 3018425.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Schneider HJ, Aimaretti G, Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Stalla GK, Ghigo E (2007). "Hypopituitarism". Lancet. 369 (9571): 1461–70. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60673-4. PMID 17467517.
  12. Benvenga S, Campenní A, Ruggeri RM, Trimarchi F (2000). "Clinical review 113: Hypopituitarism secondary to head trauma". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85 (4): 1353–61. doi:10.1210/jcem.85.4.6506. PMID 10770165.
  13. Lieberman SA, Oberoi AL, Gilkison CR, Masel BE, Urban RJ (2001). "Prevalence of neuroendocrine dysfunction in patients recovering from traumatic brain injury". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (6): 2752–6. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.6.7592. PMID 11397882.
  14. Agha A, Thornton E, O'Kelly P, Tormey W, Phillips J, Thompson CJ (2004). "Posterior pituitary dysfunction after traumatic brain injury". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89 (12): 5987–92. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1058. PMID 15579748.
  15. Bondanelli M, Ambrosio MR, Carli A, Bergonzoni A, Bertocchi A, Zatelli MC, Ceruti S, Valle D, Basaglia N, degli Uberti EC (2010). "Predictors of pituitary dysfunction in patients surviving ischemic stroke". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 95 (10): 4660–8. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-0611. PMID 20660027.
  16. Klose M, Brennum J, Poulsgaard L, Kosteljanetz M, Wagner A, Feldt-Rasmussen U (2010). "Hypopituitarism is uncommon after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 73 (1): 95–101. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03791.x. PMID 20105184.
  17. Schneider HJ, Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Ghigo E, Stalla GK, Agha A (2007). "Hypothalamopituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review". JAMA. 298 (12): 1429–38. doi:10.1001/jama.298.12.1429. PMID 17895459.
  18. Hannon MJ, Behan LA, O'Brien MM, Tormey W, Javadpour M, Sherlock M, Thompson CJ (2015). "Chronic hypopituitarism is uncommon in survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 82 (1): 115–21. doi:10.1111/cen.12533. PMID 24965315.

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