Hypercalcemia physical examination
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Hypercalcemia On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hypercalcemia
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.
Physical examination of patients with hypercalcemia is usually unremarkable. Patients may have physical findings due to severe hypercalcemia and other complications.
- Physical examination of patients with hypercalcemia is usually unremarkable.
- Patients may have physical findings due to severe hypercalcemia and other complication.
Appearance of the Patient
- Patients with hypercalcaemia usually appear well.
- High blood pressure due to hypercalcemia and renal failure
- Persistent itching may be present due to renal failure
- Band keratopathy (calcium precipitation in a horizontal band across the cornea in the palpebral aperture); may lead to vision impairment
- Dyspnea due to fluid overload form renal failure
- Palpitations due to arrhythmias
- Chest pain due to fluid overload form renal failure
- Rales and S3 due to fluid overload form renal failure
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fecal impaction (from constipation)
- Epigastric pain and tenderness due to development of pancreatitis
- Flank pain and tenderness due to nephrolithiasis
- Alteration in urinary habits
- Volume depletion
- Signs of renal failure
- Patient is usually oriented to persons, place, and time.
- Patients with severe hypercalcemia and other complications may have:
- Fatigue and weakness due to renal failure
- Sleep disturbances
- Muscle twitch and cramps
- Signs of depression
- Memory disturbances
- Swelling of feet and ankles due to renal failure
- Arthralgia due to bone resorption
- ↑ Pallan S, Khan A (2011). "Primary hyperparathyroidism: Update on presentation, diagnosis, and management in primary care". Can Fam Physician. 57 (2): 184–9. PMC 3038812. PMID 21321169.
- ↑ Mishra SK, Agarwal G, Kar DK, Gupta SK, Mithal A, Rastad J (2001). "Unique clinical characteristics of primary hyperparathyroidism in India". Br J Surg. 88 (5): 708–14. doi:10.1046/j.0007-1323.2001.01775.x. PMID 11350446.