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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief:


Blurred vision is a common ocular symptom which is define as a sudden or gradual loss of clarity or sharpness of vision and difficulty to see fine details.It can present unilateral or bilateral.

Historical Perspective

There is not much information regarding the historical perspective of blurred vision.


There is no established system for the classification of blurred vision.


Blurred vision may result from refractive errors, opacity of structures (lens, cornea, vitreous), retina disorder or optic nerve disease.


Blurred vision can be caused by a wide range of eye conditions which include:[1] [2]

Epidemiology and Demographics

Patients of all age groups may develop blurred vision.By the age of 65,approximately one in three people has some form of vision-reducing eye disorder .[4]

Risk Factors

Risk factors in the development of blurred vision include Genetic,Nutritional,Family history,Diabetes mellitus,Age,Hyperlipidemia,Hypertension,Toxins, Exposure to ultraviolet light.[5] [6]


  • According to the American Diabetes Association’s patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes should have comprehensive eye examination within 5 years after the onset of diabetes and at the time of diagnosis ,respectively. [7] The eye examination should be considered at least annually thereafter.
  • There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for Glaucoma. USPSTF suggests that patients at increased risk, especially African Americans and older adults, talk to their primary care clinician or eye care specialist for advice about glaucoma screening.
  • The USPSTF[8]. recommends annual screening for adults aged 40 years or older and for those who are at increased risk for high blood pressure.[3] Persons at increased risk include those who have high-normal blood pressure (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg), those who are overweight or obese, and African Americans. Adults aged 18 to 39 years with normal blood pressure (<130/85 mm Hg) who do not have other risk factors should be re-screened every 3 to 5 years.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Prognosis of blurred vision depends on the underlying cause.


There are no established criteria for the diagnosis of blurred vision. The diagnosis of blurred vision is based on taking detailed medical history and eye examination.Patient Should be asked about the onset, duration, associated symptoms and whether blurred vision is bilateral or unilateral.

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

CT scan



Depends upon the cause, underlying disorders should be addressed.

Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Preventive measures in developing diabetic retinopathy include a healthy lifestyle, controlling hypertension, stringent lipid control and periodic ophthalmic examinations. [36]. Studies have confirmed an increased risk of AMD among smokers; so, smokers should be encouraged to quit.[37]

Secondary Prevention


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  16. Hernández-Zimbrón LF, Zamora-Alvarado R, Ochoa-De la Paz L, Velez-Montoya R, Zenteno E, Gulias-Cañizo R, Quiroz-Mercado H, Gonzalez-Salinas R. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: New Paradigms for Treatment and Management of AMD. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Feb 1;2018:8374647. doi: 10.1155/2018/8374647. PMID: 29484106; PMCID: PMC5816845.
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[blurred vision causes]
Cause of blurred vision Unilateral Bilateral Eye pain Onset Associated symptoms!
Refractive errors + + - gradual headache,head tilt, rubbing eye
Glaucoma + + red eye, Headache, Nausea
Age-related macular degeneration + - gradual extra sensitivity to glare
Cataracts + + - gradual loss of Night Vision, halos
Diabetes retinopathy + - gradual Polyuria, Polydipsia, polyphagia
Presbyopia + + - gradual
keratitis + + sudden eye redness,photophobia,A feeling that something is in the eye
conjunctivitis + + +/- sudden eye redness,photophobia,A feeling that something is in the eye,Increased lacrimation
Uveitis + + sudden eye redness, floaters,photophobia,Increased lacrimation
Iritis + + sudden light sensitivity
Retinal detachment + - sudden curtain
Infectious Retinitis + + +/- gradual Loss of night vision,tunnel vision
Eye trauma (Hyphema) + + sudden bleeding in the front of the eye,light sensitivity
Vitreous hemorrhage + - sudden Floaters
Lung cancer metastasis + + - depends on the site of metastasis
Migraine + + - sudden aura,headache ,nausea
Central retinal artery occlusion + - sudden complete sight loss
Central retinal vein occlusion + - sudden complete sight loss
Brain tumor + + - headache, focal neurological symptoms
Optic neuritis + + sudden/gradual Flashing lights
stroke + - sudden ataxia, hemiplegia, dysarthria
Papilloedema + - sudden Headache,nausea
Temporal arteritis Mostly - sudden Amaurosis fugax, headache,Diplopia
High blood pressure + + - sudden headache,nausea
Orbital cellulitis + + sudden Swollen eye ,red eyes, fever
drugs-induced + - symptoms related to the medication
Sjögren's syndrome + - gradual Eye dryness, redness,Burning eyes