Arteriovenous fistula

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sabawoon Mirwais, M.B.B.S, M.D.[2]


An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. It may be congenital, surgically created for hemodialysis treatment, or acquired due to a pathologic process, such as trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm. These communications can occur at any point in the vascular system; varying in size, length, location, and number.

Historical Perspective



Clinical Features

Differentiating Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) from other Conditions

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • From 1965-1992, the incidence was estimated to be 1.84 cases per 100,000 individuals.
  • From 1985-1992, the incidence was estimated to be 2.75 cases per 100,000 individuals.
  • On January 1, 1990, the prevalence of identified cases was 19.0 per 100,000 individuals.[31]




Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria


Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy




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