Alcoholic hepatitis pathophysiology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shadan Mehraban, M.D.[2]Prashanth Saddala M.B.B.S


The pathophysiology of Alcoholic Hepatitis is caused by interplay between alcohol metabolism, inflammation and innate immunity. Alcohol metabolism leads to depletion of NAD and subsequent lipogenesis. Additionally, increased endotoxemia causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide from intestine to hepatocytes. In hepatocytes, lipopolysaccharide activates kupffer cells. Therefore, activated cells release inflammatory markers which lead to Alcoholic hepatitis.




Associated Conditions

Conditions associated with alcoholic liver disease include:[2][8]

Microscopic Pathology

On microscopic histopathological analysis characteristic findings of Alcoholic Hepatitis include:


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Gao, Bin; Bataller, Ramon (2011). "Alcoholic Liver Disease: Pathogenesis and New Therapeutic Targets". Gastroenterology. 141 (5): 1572–1585. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.09.002. ISSN 0016-5085.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ceni E, Mello T, Galli A (2014). "Pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease: role of oxidative metabolism". World J. Gastroenterol. 20 (47): 17756–72. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i47.17756. PMC 4273126. PMID 25548474.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bautista, Abraham P (2001). "Impact of alcohol on the ability of Kupffer cells to produce chemokines and its role in alcoholic liver disease". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 15 (4): 349–356. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1746.2000.02174.x. ISSN 0815-9319.
  4. Suraweera DB, Weeratunga AN, Hu RW, Pandol SJ, Hu R (2015). "Alcoholic hepatitis: The pivotal role of Kupffer cells". World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 6 (4): 90–8. doi:10.4291/wjgp.v6.i4.90. PMC 4644891. PMID 26600966.
  5. Bird G (1994). "Interleukin-8 in alcoholic liver disease". Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 57 (3–4): 255–9. PMID 7810274.
  6. Laso FJ, Lapeña P, Madruga JI, San Miguel JF, Orfao A, Iglesias MC; et al. (1997). "Alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-6 production by natural killer cell-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic alcoholism: relationship with liver disease and ethanol intake". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 21 (7): 1226–31. PMID 9347083.
  7. Zintzaras E, Stefanidis I, Santos M, Vidal F (2006). "Do alcohol-metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms increase the risk of alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease?". Hepatology. 43 (2): 352–61. doi:10.1002/hep.21023. PMID 16440362.
  8. Lucey, Michael R.; Mathurin, Philippe; Morgan, Timothy R. (2009). "Alcoholic Hepatitis". New England Journal of Medicine. 360 (26): 2758–2769. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0805786. ISSN 0028-4793.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Cotran. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company. 0-7216-7335-X. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)

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