Hematuria causes

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See also: Microscopic hematuria

Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kiran Singh, M.D. [1] Venkata Sivakrishna Kumar Pulivarthi M.B.B.S [2]

For causes of Microscopic Hematuria, click here


Causes of hematuria can range from benign conditions such as urinary tract infection to serious conditions such as bladder cancer.[1] Extrarenal site is responsible for more than 60% of cases of hematuria. Of these, the most important underlying disease is malignancy. In the primary care population, about 5% of patients with microscopic hematuria will have a urinary tract malignancy, mainly of the bladder or prostate. The most common nonmalignant causes of extrarenal hematuria are infections, such as cystitis, prostatitis, and urethritis.Regarding renal causes of microscopic hematuria, the most common cause of isolated glomerular hematuria (without significant proteinuria) is IgA nephropathy, followed by thin basement membrane disease, hereditary nephritis (Alport syndrome), and mild focal glomerulonephritis of other causes.[2]


Life Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Children[3] Age <50 years[4] Age >50 years[4]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Arteriosclerosis, arteriovenous malformations, endocarditis, cholesterol embolism, heart failure, hypertension, malignant hypertension, shock
Chemical / poisoning
Dermatologic Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasis, lupus, Osler's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, urethral carbuncle
Drug Side Effect Artemether and lumefantrin, beractant, BCG vaccine, bicalutamide, caspofungin acetate, cefpodoxime, cobimetinib, cyclophosphamide,dicoumarol, ethacrynic acid, febuxostat, felbamate, flurbiprofen, gemcitabine, goserelin, hexaminolevulinate, Ibrutinib, Indinavir, Ifosfamide, Ioxilan, leuprolide, methenamine, micafungin, mitotane, olsalazine, Oxcarbazepine, Oxaprozin penicillamine, phenprocoumon, Pramipexole, probenecid, sodium aurothiomalate, sulfasalazine, tiagabine, tolmetin, tiaprofenic acid, warfarin
Ear Nose Throat Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasis, mononucleosis, Osler's disease
Endocrine Diabetes mellitus, diabetic glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, porphyria
Gastroenterologic Hepatitis B, porphyria
Genetic Alport syndrome, Berger's disease, Fabry disease, Dent's disease, hemoglobinopathy, hemophilia, IgA nephropathy nail-patella syndrome, Nephrolithiasis type 2Osler's disease, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, polycystic kidney disease, thalassemia,renal arteriovenous malformation, thalassemia
Hematologic Cold agglutinins, March haemoglobinuria, hemoglobinopathy, hemophilia, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Henoch schonlein purpura, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasis, multiple myeloma, paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, polycythemia vera, porphyria, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, thrombocytopeniathrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Infectious Disease Acute cystitis, acute interstitial nephritis, acute prostatitis, adenovirus, bilharziosis, bladder tuberculosis, chronic cystitis, cystitis, cytomegalovirus, dengue, Dent's disease, E.coli, ECHO viruses endocarditis, filaria, hepatitis B, Influenza, legionella infection, legionella pneumophila, malaria, micafungin mononucleosis, mycoplasma, nephritis, postinfectious glomerulonephritis, prostate tuberculosis, prostatitis pyelonephritis, radiation cystitis, renal tuberculosis, salmonellaschistosomiasis, toxoplasma, trichinella spiralis, tuberculosis, urethritis, vasculitis, pseudomonas, renal tuberculosis, salmonella, schistosomiasis, torulopsis, toxoplasma, trichinella spiralis, tuberculosis, ureter tuberculosis, urethritis, urinary tract infection. urogential tuberculosis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Pelvic fracture
Neurologic Arteriosclerosis, arteriovenous malformations, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasis, Osler's disease
Nutritional / Metabolic Diabetes mellitus Fabry disease
Obstetric/Gynecologic Endometriosis
Oncologic Angiomyolipoma, bladder cancer, hypernephroma, multiple myeloma, polycythemia vera, prostate adenoma, prostate cancer, renal adenocarcinoma, renal angiomyolipoma, renal arteriovenous malformation, renal pelvis carcinoma, ureter carcinoma, urethra carcinoma, urothelium carcinoma, Wilms' tumor
Overdose / Toxicity
Pulmonary Allergic granulomatosis, sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis
Renal / Electrolyte Acute cystitis, acute interstitial nephritis Alport syndrome, analgesic nephropathy, Balkan nephropathy, beeturia benign familial hematuria, Berger's disease, calyx diverticulum, cholesterol embolism, chronic cystitis, crescentic glomerulonephritis, cystitis, dense deposit disease, Dent's disease, diabetic glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, focal glomerulotnephritis, glomerulonephritis, fibronectin glomerulopathy, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Henoch schonlein purpura, hydronephrosis hypernephroma, IgA nephropathy, Interstitial cystitis, kidney amyloidosis, Loin pain hematuria syndrome,lupus, medullary sponge kidney, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis type iii nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, nutcracker syndrome, papillary necrosis, polycystic kidney disease, postinfectious glomerulonephritis, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, pyelonephritis, radiation nephropathy, renal adenocarcinoma, renal angiomyolipoma, renal artery aneurysm, renal cell carcinoma, renal cyst, renal hyperplasia, renal infarct, renal metastases, renal oncocytoma, renal oncocytoma, renal pelvis carcinoma, renal trauma, renal tuberculosis, renal vein infarct, renal vein thrombosis, shunt nephritis, sponge kidney, systemic lupus erythematosus, thin basement membrane disease, tubulointerstitial nephropathies, urate nephropathy,ureter carcinoma, ureter tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, vesico-ureteral-renal reflux, Wegener's granulomatosis, Wilms' tumor
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Allergic granulomatosis, Cd59 antigen deficiency, Cold agglutinins, dermatosclerosis, Henoch schonlein purpura, microscopic polyangiitis, polyarteritis nodosa, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis
Trauma Pelvic fracture
Urologic Acute prostatitis, beeturia, benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder cancer, bladder tuberculosis Dent's disease, foreign body in urethra, hemorrhage from bladder outlet, hemorrhage from urethra hydronephrosis, interstitial cystitis, Loin pain hematuria syndrome, malignancies of the bladder, meatus stenosis, megaureter, polycystic kidney disease, prostate adenoma, prostate cancer, prostate hyperplasia, prostate tuberculosis, prostatectomy, radiation cystitis, urethra carcinoma, urethral carbuncle, urethritis, urinary stones, urinary tract infection, urogential tuberculosis, urolithiasis, urothelium carcinoma
Miscellaneous Dioctophyma renale, exercise, fistula, foods, Inflammation, infundibulopelvic dysgenesis, Injury, masturbation myoglobinuria, toxins, trauma, tumor, urethral catheterization, urinary catheterization

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Causes of Microscopic Hematuria

Causes by Anatomic Location

Microscopic hematuria.jpg

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Hypertension, Malignant hypertension, Shock
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Analgesic nephropathy, Anticoagulant therapy, BCG vaccine, Caspofungin, Cobimetinib, Cyclophosphamide, Dicoumarol, Febuxostat, Gemcitabine, Ifosfamide, Micafungin, Oxaprozin, Oxcarbazepine, Phenprocoumon, Pramipexole, Tiaprofenic acid, Warfarin
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Alport's syndrome, Benign familial hematuria, CD59 antigen deficiency, Dent disease, Fabry disease,, HANAC syndrome, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasis, Infundibulopelvic dysgenesis, Osler's Disease, Polycystic kidney disease, Porphyria
Hematologic Bleeding diathesis, Cold agglutinins, Consumption coagulopathy, Haemophilia, Hemoglobinopathy, March haemoglobinuria, Multiple myeloma, Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, Polycythemia vera, Porphyria, Sickle cell disease, Thalassemia, Thrombocytopathies, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Iatrogenic Prostatectomy, Prostatic procedures(biopsy, transurethral resection of the prostate), Radiation cystitis, Radiation nephropathy, Urethral catheterization
Infectious Disease Adenovirus, Bacterial endocarditis, Bilharziosis, Bladder tuberculosis, Chronic cystitis, Cytomegalovirus, Dengue, Dioctophyma renale, E.coli, ECHO viruses, Filaria, Influenza, Legionella pneumophila, Malaria, Plasmodium, Prostate tuberculosis, Prostatitis, Pseudomonas, Renal abscess, Renal tuberculosis, Salmonella, Schistosomiasis, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Torulopsis, Toxoplasma, Trichinella spiralis, Tuberculosis, Ureter tuberculosis, Urinary tract infection, Varicella
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic Endometriosis
Oncologic Benign renal mass, Bladder cancer, Hypernephroma, Malignancies of the bladder, Malignant renal mass, Multiple myeloma, Oncocytoma, Prostate adenoma, Prostate cancer, Renal adenocarcinoma, Renal angiomyolipoma, Renal cell carcinoma, Renal oncocytoma, Squamous cell carcinoma of bladder, Transitional cell carcinoma of bladder, Transitional cell carcinoma of kidney, Ureter carcinoma, Urethral cancer, Urothelium carcinoma, Wilms' tumor
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte Acute interstitial nephritis, Analgesic nephropathy, Angiomyolipoma, Balkan nephropathy, Berger's disease, Calyx diverticulum, Crescentic glomerulonephritis, Dense deposit disease, Dent disease, Diabetic glomerulosclerosis, Diabetic nephropathy, Fibronectin glomerulopathy, Focal segmental glomerulonephritis, Glomerulonephritis, Goodpasture syndrome, Hydronephrosis, Hypercalciuria, Hypernephroma, Hyperuricosuria, IgA nephropathy,Interstitial cystitis, Loin pain hematuria syndrome, Malignant renal mass, Medullary sponge kidney, Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis type iii, Nephrocalcinosis, Nephrolithiasis, Nutcracker syndrome, Papillary necrosis, Postinfectious glomerulonephritis, Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis, Renal abscess, Renal adenocarcinoma, Renal angiomyolipoma, Renal aretery embolism, Renal arteriovenous malformation, Renal artery aneurysm,Renal cell carcinoma, Renal cyst, Renal hyperplasia, Renal oncocytoma, Renal tuberculosis, Renal vein thrombosis, Shunt nephritis, Thin basement membrane disease, Tubulointerstitial nephropathies, Wilms' tumor
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Allergic granulomatosis, Berger's disease, Cold agglutinins, Dermatosclerosis, Goodpasture syndrome, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, Henoch schonlein purpura, IgA nephropathy, Kidney amyloidosis, Microscopic polyangiitis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Renal infarction, Sarcoidosis, SLE, Vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Pelvic fracture, Renal trauma
Urologic Acute prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Bladder stone, Foreign body in urethra, Hemorrhage from bladder outlet, Hemorrhage from urethra, Meatal stenosis, Megaureter, Postoperative spindle cell nodule of urinary bladder, Prostate adenoma, Prostate cancer, Prostate hyperplasia, Prostate tuberculosis, Urate nephropathy, Ureteral cancer, Ureter tuberculosis, Ureteroiliac fistula, Ureterolithiasis, Urethral cancer, Urethral carbuncle, Urethral diverticulum, Urethral fibroepithelial polyp, Urethral stone, Urethritis, Urinary tract infection, Urolithiasis, Urothelium carcinoma, Urtethral stricture, Vesical calculi, Vesico-ureteral-renal reflux
Miscellaneous Arteriovenous fistula, Arteriovenous malformation, Cholesterol embolism, Exercise, Masturbation, Transient unexplained

Causes by Alphabetical Order


  1. Rew, Karl (2010). Primary care urology. Philadelphia, Pa. London: Saunders. ISBN 978-1437724899. 
  2. Rew, Karl (2010). Primary care urology. Philadelphia, Pa. London: Saunders. ISBN 978-1437724899. 
  3. Amin, Nimisha; Zaritsky, Joshua J. (2011). "Hematuria": 258–261. doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-05405-8.00069-3. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "www.surgeryjournal.co.uk". 
  5. Young EE, Gandhi N, Stuhldreher P, Bishop JA, Wang MH (2016). "Profound Hematuria in a Toddler Yields an Unusual Diagnosis.". Urol Case Rep. 6: 39–41. PMC 4855982Freely accessible. PMID 27175341. doi:10.1016/j.eucr.2016.02.009.