Hematuria risk factors

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Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Venkata Sivakrishna Kumar Pulivarthi M.B.B.S [1]


Risk Factors

People of all age groups, including children, can have hematuria. Certain factors increase the chance of hematuria:

Common risk factors for urinary tract malignancy in patients with hematuria:[1][2][3]

  • Age older than 35 years
  • Analgesic abuse
  • Exposure to chemicals or dyes (benzenes or aromatic amines)
  • Male sex
  • Past or current smoking

History of any of the following:

  • Chronic indwelling foreign body
  • Chronic urinary tract infection
  • Exposure to known carcinogenic agents or alkylating chemotherapeutic agents
  • Gross hematuria
  • Irritative voiding symptoms
  • Pelvic irradiation
  • Urologic disorder or disease


  1. Sharp VJ, Barnes KT, Erickson BA (2013) Assessment of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults. Am Fam Physician 88 (11):747-54. PMID: 24364522
  2. Richter LA, Lippmann QK, Jallad K, Lucas J, Yeung J, Dune T, Mellano E, Weissbart S, Mete M, Kim JH, Gutman R (2016). "Risk Factors for Microscopic Hematuria in Women". Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 22 (6): 486–490. doi:10.1097/SPV.0000000000000321. PMID 27636220.
  3. Jackson RE, Casanova NF, Wallner LP, Dunn RL, Hedgepeth RC, Faerber GJ, Wei JT (September 2013). "Risk factors for delayed hematuria following photoselective vaporization of the prostate". J. Urol. 190 (3): 903–8. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2013.03.070. PMID 23538242.