Copper(II) sulfate

Jump to: navigation, search
Template:Chembox ECNumberTemplate:Chembox E numberTemplate:Chembox SolubilityInWater
Copper(II) sulfate
IUPAC name Copper(II) sulfate
pentahydrate
Other names Copper(II) sulfate
Copper(II)sulphate
Cupric sulfate
Blue vitriol
Bluestone
Chalcanthite
Identifiers
ECHA InfoCard Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 879: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). Lua error in Module:Wikidata at line 879: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
RTECS number GL8800000
Properties
CuSO4·5H2O (pentahydrate)
CuSO4 (anhydrous)
Molar mass 249.685 g/mol (pentahydrate)
159.609 g/mol (anhydrous)
Appearance blue crystalline solid (pentahydrate)
gray-white powder (anhydrous)
Melting point
Structure
Crystal structure Triclinic
Coordination
geometry
Octahedral
Thermochemistry
Standard molar
entropy
So298
109.05 J.K−1.mol−1
Hazards
EU classification {{{value}}}
Flash point {{{value}}}
Related compounds
Other cations {{{value}}}
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

WikiDoc Resources for Copper(II) sulfate

Articles

Most recent articles on Copper(II) sulfate

Most cited articles on Copper(II) sulfate

Review articles on Copper(II) sulfate

Articles on Copper(II) sulfate in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Copper(II) sulfate

Images of Copper(II) sulfate

Photos of Copper(II) sulfate

Podcasts & MP3s on Copper(II) sulfate

Videos on Copper(II) sulfate

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Copper(II) sulfate

Bandolier on Copper(II) sulfate

TRIP on Copper(II) sulfate

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Copper(II) sulfate at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Copper(II) sulfate

Clinical Trials on Copper(II) sulfate at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Copper(II) sulfate

NICE Guidance on Copper(II) sulfate

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Copper(II) sulfate

CDC on Copper(II) sulfate

Books

Books on Copper(II) sulfate

News

Copper(II) sulfate in the news

Be alerted to news on Copper(II) sulfate

News trends on Copper(II) sulfate

Commentary

Blogs on Copper(II) sulfate

Definitions

Definitions of Copper(II) sulfate

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Copper(II) sulfate

Discussion groups on Copper(II) sulfate

Patient Handouts on Copper(II) sulfate

Directions to Hospitals Treating Copper(II) sulfate

Risk calculators and risk factors for Copper(II) sulfate

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Copper(II) sulfate

Causes & Risk Factors for Copper(II) sulfate

Diagnostic studies for Copper(II) sulfate

Treatment of Copper(II) sulfate

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Copper(II) sulfate

International

Copper(II) sulfate en Espanol

Copper(II) sulfate en Francais

Business

Copper(II) sulfate in the Marketplace

Patents on Copper(II) sulfate

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Copper(II) sulfate

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Copper(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4. This salt exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, whereas the pentahydrate, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. This hydrated copper sulfate occurs in nature as the mineral called chalcanthite. Archaic names for copper(II) sulfate are "blue vitriol" and "bluestone".[1]

Preparation

Since it is available commercially, copper sulfate is usually purchased, not prepared in the laboratory. It can be made by the action of sulfuric acid on a variety of copper(II) compounds, for example copper(II) oxide. Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting, losing four water molecules at 110 °C and all five at 150 °C. At 650 °C, copper(II) sulfate decomposes into copper(II) oxide (CuO) and sulfur trioxide (SO3). When heated in an open flame the crystals are dehydrated and turn grayish-white.[2]

Uses

As an herbicide, fungicide, pesticide

Copper sulfate pentahydrate is a fungicide. Mixed with lime it is called Bordeaux mixture to control fungus on grapes, melons and other berries,[3] another application is Cheshunt compound, a mixture of copper sulphate and ammonium carbonate used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings. Its use as an herbicide is not agricultural, but instead for control of invasive exotic aquatic plants and the roots of other invasive plants near various pipes that contain water. A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fish of various parasitic infections,[4] and is also used to remove snails from aquariums. However, as the copper ions are also highly toxic to the fish, care must be taken with the dosage. Most species of algae can be controlled with very low concentrations of copper sulfate. Copper sulfate inhibits growth of bacteria such as E. coli.

Analytical reagent

Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper(II) sulfate to insoluble red copper(I) oxide. Copper(II) sulfate is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins.

Copper sulfate is also used to test blood for anemia. The blood is tested by dropping it into a solution of copper sulfate of known specific gravity — blood which contains sufficient hemoglobin sinks rapidly due to its density, whereas blood which does not floats or sinks slowly.[5]

In a flame test, its copper ions emit a deep blue-green light, much more blue than the flame test for barium.

Organic synthesis

Copper sulfate is employed in organic synthesis.[6] The anhydrous salt catalyses the transacetalization in organic synthesis.[7] The hydrated salt reacts with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols.[8]

Chemistry education

Copper sulphate is a commonly included chemical in children's chemistry sets and is often used to grow crystals in schools and in copper plating experiments. Due to its toxicity, it is not recommended for small children. Copper sulfate is often used to demonstrate an exothermic reaction, in which steel wool or magnesium ribbon is placed in an aqueous solution of CuSO4. It is used in school chemistry courses to demonstrate the principle of mineral hydration. The pentahydrate form, which is blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form which is white, while the water that was present in the pentahydrate form evaporates. When water is then added to the anhydrous compound, it turns back into the pentahydrate form, regaining its blue color.

In an illustration of a "single metal replacement reaction," iron is submerged in a solution of copper sulfate. Upon standing, iron dissolves and copper precipitates.

Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu

The copper can also be electroplated to the iron.

Other uses

Other applications include hair dyes, coloring glass, processing of leather and textiles, an ingredient in baby formula milk, and in pyrotechnics as a green colorant.[9]

References

  1. "Copper(II) sulfate MSDS". Oxford University. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  2. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. Inorganic Chemistry Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  3. "Uses of Copper Compounds: Copper Sulphate's Role in Agriculture". Copper.org. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  4. "All About Copper Sulfate". National Fish Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
  5. Barbara H. Estridge, Anna P. Reynolds, Norma J. Walters (2000). Basic Medical Laboratory Techniques. Thomson Delmar Learning. p. 166. ISBN 0766812065.
  6. Hoffman, R. V. "Copper(II) Sulfate" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2001 John Wiley & Sons. DOI: 10.1002/047084289X.rc247
  7. Hulce, M. Mallomo, J. P.; Frye, L. L.; Kogan, T. P.; Posner, G. H. (1990). "(S)-( + )-2-(p-Toluenesulfinyl)-2-Cyclopentanone: Precursor for Enantioselective Synthesis of 3-Substituted Cyclopentanones". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 7: 495. 
  8. Jefford, C. W.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.. "A Selective, Heterogeneous Oxidation using a Mixture of Potassium Permanganate and Cupric Sulfate: (3aS,7aR)-Hexahydro-(3S,6R)-Dimethyl-2(3H)-Benzofuranone". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 9: 462. 
  9. "Uses of Copper Compounds: Table A - Uses of Copper Sulphate". Copper.org. Retrieved 2007-12-31.

External links





Linked-in.jpg