|IUPAC name||Copper(II) oxide|
|Other names||cupric oxide|
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|Molar mass||79.545 g/mol|
|Lattice constant||a = 4.6837 Å,b = 3.4226 Å,c = 5.1288 Å|
|Lattice constant||α = 90°, β = 99.54°, γ = 90°|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
It is a black solid with an ionic structure which melts above 1200 °C with some loss of oxygen. It can be formed by heating copper in air, but in this case it is formed along with copper(I) oxide; thus, it is better prepared by heating copper(II) nitrate, copper(II) hydroxide or copper(II) carbonate:
- 2Cu(NO3)2 → 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2
- Cu(OH)2(s) → CuO(s) + H2O(l)
- CuCO3 → CuO + CO2
- CuO + 2HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
- CuO + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2O
- CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O
- CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O
- CuO + CO → Cu + CO2
- 2Cu + O2 → 2CuO
Copper(II) oxide belongs to the monoclinic crystal system, with a crystallographic point group of 2/m or C2h. The space group of its unit cell is C2/c, and its lattice parameters are a = 4.6837(5), b = 3.4226(5), c = 5.1288(6), α = 90° , β = 99.54(1)°, γ = 90°.
|Unit cell of CuO||part of CuO's crystal structure|
Copper(II) oxide is an irritant. It also can cause damage to the endocrine and central nervous system. Contact to the eyes can cause irritation and damage to the corneas, and potentially can cause conjunctivitis. Contact to the skin can cause irritation and discoloration. Ingesting cupric oxide can lead to central nervous system depression, liver and kidney damage, gastro-intestinal damage, circulatory system failure or damage to the vascular system. Inhalation can lead to damage to the lungs and septum. Inhalation of fumes of cupric oxide can lead to a disease called Metal fume fever, which has symptoms similar to influenza. Prolonged exposure to cupric oxide can lead to dermatitis, and can cause a toxic build-up of copper in people with Wilson's disease. Handling copper(II) oxide should be done in well ventilated area, and care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin or eyes. After handling, one should wash thoroughly.
Cupric oxide is used as a pigment in ceramics to produce blue, red, and green (and sometimes gray, pink, or black) glazes. It is also used to produce cuprammonium hydroxide solutions, used to make rayon. It is also occasionally used as a dietary supplement in animals, against copper deficiency. Copper (II) oxide has application as a p-type semiconductor, because it has a narrow band gap of 1.2 eV. It is an abrasive used to polish optical equipment. Cupric oxide can be used to produce dry cell batteries. It has also been used in wet cell batteries as the cathode, with lithium as an anode, and Dioxalane mixed with Lithium Perchlorate as the electrolyte. Copper Oxide can be used to produce other copper salts. It is also used when welding with copper alloys.
Another use for cupric oxide is as a substitute for iron oxide in thermite. This can turn the thermite from an incendiary to a low explosive.
Use in disposal
- "MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET: Copper (II) oxide". Iowa State University. 2003. Retrieved 2007-01-26.
- "Uses of Copper Compounds: Other Copper Compounds". Copper Development Association. 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- "Cupric Oxide Data Sheet". Hummel Croton Inc. 2006-04-21. Retrieved 2007-02-01.
- Kenney, Charlie W.; Uchida, Laura A. (April), Use of copper (II) oxide as source of oxygen for oxidation reactions, retrieved 2007-06-29 Check date values in:
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- Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 91, 843 (2007)