|Other names||fluoric acid; fluorhydric acid|
|Molar mass||not applicable|
(see hydrogen fluoride)
|Density||1.15 g/mL (for 48% soln.)|
|Solubility in water||Miscible.|
|Acidity (pKa)||3.15 (in water)|
|Main hazards||Very Toxic, Corrosive.|
|S-phrases||, , , ,|
|Other anions||Hydrochloric acid|
|Related compounds||Hydrogen fluoride|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. Together with hydrogen fluoride, hydrofluoric acid is a valued source of fluorine, being the precursor to numerous pharmaceuticals, diverse polymers (e.g. Teflon), and most other synthetic materials that contain fluorine. Hydrofluoric acid is best known to the public for its ability to dissolve glass by reacting with SiO2, the major component of most glasses. This dissolution process can be described as follows:
Because of its high reactivity toward glass, hydrofluoric acid is typically stored in polyethylene or Teflon containers. It is also unique in its ability to dissolve many metal and semimetal oxides. It is corrosive, as explained below.
Hydrogen fluoride dissociates in aqueous solution in a similar fashion to other common acids:
- HF + H2O → H3O+ + F−
When the concentration of HF approaches 100%, the acidity increases dramatically due to the following equilibrium:
- 2HF → H+ + FHF−
The FHF− anion is stabilized by the very strong hydrogen - fluorine hydrogen bond. Hydrofluoric acid is the only one of the hydrohalic acids that is not considered a strong acid due to its lack of ionization in aqueous solution.
Industrially, hydrofluoric acid is produced by treatment of the mineral fluorite (CaF2) with concentrated sulfuric acid. When combined at 250 °C, these two substances react to produce hydrogen fluoride according to the following chemical equation:
- CaF2 + H2SO4 → 2HF + CaSO4
Because of its ability to dissolve metal oxides, hydrofluoric acid is used in the purification of both aluminium and uranium. It is also used to etch glass, to remove surface oxides from silicon in the semiconductor industry, as a catalyst for the alkylation of isobutane and butene (olefinic C4) in oil refineries, and to remove oxide impurities from stainless steel in a process called pickling. Dilute hydrofluoric acid is sold as a household rust stain remover. Recently it has even been used in car washes in "wheel cleaner" compounds. Due to its ability to dissolve silicate compounds, hydrofluoric acid is often used to dissolve rock samples (usually powdered) prior to analysis.
Hydrofluoric acid is also used in the synthesis of many fluorine-containing organic compounds, including Teflon, fluoropolymers, perfluorocarbons, and refrigerants such as freon. Additionally, hydrofluoric acid is commonly used in refinery alkylation processes to produce a high-octane gasoline blending component called alkylate from FCCU C3 and C4 olefins and isobutane.
Diluted hydrofluoric acid (1 to 3 %wt.) is used in the petroleum industry in a mixture with weaker acids (HCl or organic acids) in order to stimulate the production of water, oil and gas wells.
Affinity for magnesium and calcium
Hydrofluoric acid attacks many metal oxides, forming the corresponding fluoro derivatives. In the body, hydrofluoric acid reacts with the ubiquitous biologically important ions Ca2+ and Mg2+. In some cases, exposures can lead to hypocalcemia. Thus, hydrofluoric acid exposure is often treated with calcium gluconate, a source of Ca2+ that sequesters the fluoride ions.
Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive and a contact poison. It should be handled with extreme care, beyond that accorded to other mineral acids, in part because of its low dissociation constant, which allows HF to penetrate tissue more quickly. Symptoms of exposure to hydrofluoric acid may not be immediately evident. HF interferes with nerve function and burns may not initially be painful. Accidental exposures can go unnoticed, delaying treatment and increasing the extent and seriousness of the injury. HF is known to etch bone, and since it penetrates the skin it essentially breaks the person's bones without destroying the skin. Hydrogen fluoride is released upon combustion of fluorine-containing compounds such as products containing Viton and Teflon parts. Hydrogen fluoride converts immediately to hydrofluoric acid upon contact with water.
- Strachan, John (January, 1999). "A deadly rinse: The dangers of hydrofluoric acid". Professional Carwashing & Detailing. Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- Yamashita M, Yamashita M, Suzuki M, Hirai H, Kajigaya H (2001). "Iontophoretic delivery of calcium for experimental hydrofluoric acid burns". Crit. Care Med. 29 (8): 1575–8. PMID 11505130. doi:10.1097/00003246-200108000-00013.
- el Saadi MS, Hall AH, Hall PK, Riggs BS, Augenstein WL, Rumack BH (1989). "Hydrofluoric acid dermal exposure". Vet Hum Toxicol. 31 (3): 243–7. PMID 2741315.
- Roblin I, Urban M, Flicoteau D, Martin C, Pradeau D (2006). "Topical treatment of experimental hydrofluoric acid skin burns by 2.5% calcium gluconate". J Burn Care Res. 27 (6): 889–94. PMID 17091088. doi:10.1097/01.BCR.0000245767.54278.09.
- "CALCIUM GLUCONATE GEL AS AN ANTIDOTE TO HYDROFLUORIC ACID BURNS ON SKIN". Northwestern University. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
- Hultén P, Höjer J, Ludwigs U, Janson A (2004). "Hexafluorine vs. standard decontamination to reduce systemic toxicity after dermal exposure to hydrofluoric acid". J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 42 (4): 355–61. PMID 15461243.
- "News & Views". Chemical Health and Safety. 12 (5): 35–37. September–October 2005. doi:10.1016/j.chs.2005.07.007 .
- International Chemical Safety Card 0283
- National Pollutant Inventory - Fluoride and compounds fact sheet
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
- CID 14917 from PubChem (HF)
- CID 144681 from PubChem (5HF)
- CID 141165 from PubChem (6HF)
- CID 144682 from PubChem (7HF)
- Computational Chemistry Wiki
- Hydrofluoric Acid Burn, The New England Journal of Medicine Acid burn case study
- MSDS []
cs:Kyselina fluorovodíková da:Flussyre de:Fluorwasserstoffsäure et:Vesinikfluoriidhape it:acido fluoridrico he:חומצה הידרופלואורית nl:Waterstoffluoride nn:Flussyre sk:Kyselina fluorovodíková sl:Fluorovodikova kislina fi:Fluorivetyhappo sv:Fluorvätesyra