Methylene blue

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Methylene blue
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Turky Alkathery, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Methylene blue is a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound that is FDA approved for the treatment of drug induced methemoglobinemia. Common adverse reactions include Hypertension, hypotension, sweating symptom, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache and confusion.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Indications

  • Drug induced methemoglobinemia

Dosage

  • 0.1 to 0.2 mL per kilogram of body weight (0.045 to 0.09 mL per pound of body weight). Inject Methylene Blue intravenously very slowly over a period of several minutes.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Methylene blue in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Methylene blue in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Methylene blue in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Methylene blue in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • Methylene blue can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. An association exists between the use of methylene blue in amniocentesis and atresia of the ileum and jejunum, ileal occlusions and other adverse effects in the neonate. Methylene blue is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
  • Intraspinal injection is contraindicated.
  • Methylene blue is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug.

Warnings

  • Methylene Blue should not be given by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection.
  • Methylene blue is a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor: Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reputake inhibitors (SRIs). Serotonin toxicity is characterized by development of neuromuscular hyperactivity (tremor, clonus, myoclonus and hyperreflexia, and, in the advanced stage, pyramidal rigidity); autonomic hyperactivity (diaphoresis, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, and mydraisis); and altered mental status (agitation, excitement, and in the advanced stage, confusion). If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, SRIs must be ceased, prior to treatment/procedure/surgery.

Precautions

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Postmarketing Experience

  • There is limited information regarding postmarketing experience

Drug Interactions

  • Methylene blue may interact with any drug that acts as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) including, amongst others, selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), triptans and ergot alkaloids; such combinations may have the consequence of potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome). Methylene blue should not be co-administered with any drug that acts as an SRI.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): X

  • Epidemiologic evidence exists that Methylene blue is a teratogen. An association exists between the use of methylene blue in amniocentesis and atresia of the ileum and jejunum, ileal occlusions and other adverse effects in the neonate. Methylene blue Injection should not be administered to pregnant women during amniocentesis due to the risk of teratogenicity and other newborn adverse effects


Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Methylene blue in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Methylene blue during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methylene blue in women who are nursing.

Pediatric Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methylene blue in pediatric settings.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methylene blue in geriatric settings.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methylene blue with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methylene blue with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • Renal Failure: Methylene blue should be used with caution in patients with severe renal impairment .

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methylene blue in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Methylene blue in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Methylene blue in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Intravenous.

Monitoring

  • There is limited information regarding drug monitoring.

IV Compatibility

  • There is limited information regarding IV compatibility.

Overdosage

There is limited information regarding Methylene blue overdosage. If you suspect drug poisoning or overdose, please contact the National Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) immediately.

Pharmacology

Template:Chembox E number
Methylene blue
IUPAC name 3,7-bis(Dimethylamino)-
phenothiazin-5-ium chloride
Other names C.I. 52015
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
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UNII
Properties
C16H18N3SCl
Molar mass 319.85 g/mol
Melting point
Boiling point
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Mechanism of Action

  • Methylene blue is Phenothiazin-5-ium, 3,7-bis (dimethylamino)-, chloride, trihydrate. It will produce two opposite actions on hemoglobin. Low concentrations will convert methemoglobin to hemoglobin. High concentrations convert the ferrous iron of reduced hemoglobin to ferric iron which results in the formation of methemoglobin.

Structure

  • Methylene Blue Injection, USP is a sterile solution of methylene blue in water for injection suitable for parenteral administration.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Each mL of solution contains 10 mg of methylene blue and water for injection q.s. pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide when necessary.

Pharmacodynamics

  • There is limited information regarding pharmacodynamics.

Pharmacokinetics

  • There is limited information regarding pharmacokinetics.

Nonclinical Toxicology

  • There is limited information regarding nonclinical toxicology.

Clinical Studies

  • There is limited information regarding clinical studies.

How Supplied

Methylene Blue Injection, USP, 1% is supplied as follows:

NDC 17478-504-01 1 mL in 2 cc (partially filled) vials in packages of 10.

NDC 17478-504-10 10 mL vials in packages of 10.

The vials are packaged with a Flip Tear-Off Seal. The seal can either be flipped normally to reveal the rubber stopper or be totally removed so the rubber stopper can be taken out of the vial. The plastic button is attached to the metal seal, which when pulled, tears the seal at the score line allowing the metal portion to be removed.

Storage

STORAGE: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • There is limited information regarding Patient Counseling Information.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Methylene blue interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • METHYLENE BLUE®[1]

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • There is limited information regarding Look-Alike Drug Names.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "METHYLENE BLUE- methylene blue injection".

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