Turner syndrome natural history, complications and prognosis
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Natural history of the patient would depend on the age of the diagnoses and what complications have developed by the time the patients presents to the physician. Congenital lymphedema may take several years to decrease. The patient experiences low self esteem due to their short stature, decreased visual spatial functioning, hyperactivity, poor facial recognition and preference for social isolation. As soon as the patient is capable of understanding, counseling regarding the risks and benefits of Turner syndrome should be explained. When compared to the general population, Turner syndrome patients have an increased mortality rate.
- The natural history of Turner syndrome patients depends on the age of diagnosis .
- The age of diagnosis would in turn determine when they present to the physician.
- A newborn would typically present with lymphedema of the hands and feet, pterygium colli (webbed neck), low posterior hairline, cubitus valgus, Madelung deformity and cyanosis secondary to congenital heart disease. 
- Children around 2 years of age begin to dip below the 5th percentile and exhibit weight loss due to feeding difficulties.
- As soon as the patient is capable of understanding, the physician should actively counsel explaining the risks, benefits and process of transitioning to adult care. 
|System||Clinical features and Complications|
|Gastrointestinal and hepatic|
|Skin, hair and nail|
Special Notes 
- Madelung deformity is secondary to SHOX haploinsufficiency. It is the chondrodysplasia of the distal radius epiphysis, typical of Leri Weill syndrome.
- Patients have normal global intellectual functioning.
- Studies have shown that Turner syndrome patient exhibit superior language and comprehension skills when compared to individuals their age. They understand less common words better and sometimes have better receptive vocabulary skills.
- Test of mental rotation, object assembly and facial recognition show significant deficits.
- Non verbal skills are poor.
- Visuospatial skills would affect right left orientation.
- Executive function skill deficits would include impairments in planning, organization, attention, concentration, processing speed and problem solving ability.
- Patients are impulsive and hyperactive. They have sleepless night and have problems maintaining relationships. They eventually become socially isolated. This affects their self-esteem.
- Associated conditions include autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, anxiety and depression.
- When compared to the general population, Turner syndrome patients have an increased mortality. 
- Atherosclerotic complications causing stroke and coronary artery disease and aortic dissection are leading causes of mortality.
- However, some Turner syndrome patients are satisfied with their lifestyle. "Turner Syndrome - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf".
- Complications like gonadoblastoma have a good prognosis if detected and removed early. 
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- Kesler SR (2007). "Turner syndrome". Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 16 (3): 709–22. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2007.02.004. PMC 2023872. PMID 17562588.
- Frías JL, Davenport ML, Committee on Genetics and Section on Endocrinology (2003). "Health supervision for children with Turner syndrome". Pediatrics. 111 (3): 692–702. doi:10.1542/peds.111.3.692. PMID 12612263.
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- Wolff DJ, Van Dyke DL, Powell CM, Working Group of the ACMG Laboratory Quality Assurance Committee (2010). "Laboratory guideline for Turner syndrome". Genet Med. 12 (1): 52–5. doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181c684b2. PMID 20081420.