Thyroid nodule risk factors
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Common risk factors in the development of thyroid nodules include: older age, iodine deficiency, previous history of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism, living in iodine deficient areas, family history of autoimmune diseases, multiparity, and smoking.
Common risk factors in the development of thyroid nodules include:
Common Risk Factors
- Hard nodule
- Nodule that stuck to nearby structures
- Family history of thyroid cancer
- Younger than 20 or older than 70 years
- As thyroid nodularity increases with age, presence of thyroid nodule in a children is twice more likely to be a cancer than in adults
- History of radiation exposure to the head or neck
- Either externally from therapeutic X-radiation or internally through treatment with radioactive iodine (131I) and possibly radioactive fallout (131I)
- As an example, ground nuclear bomb testing in Nevada in the 1950s led to a meaningful increase in thyroid cancer incidence
- History of radiation treatment to the head and neck region, for example for treatment purposes is associated with an increased incidence of thyroid nodularity and cancer:
- To treat acne
- To treat inflammation of the tonsils or adenoids
- To treat thymic enlargement
- Male gender
- Alcohol consumption
- Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels
- Increased parity and late age at first pregnancy
- Hepatitis C-related chronic hepatitis (odds ratio 12.2 in one report)
- Decreased serum TSH levels in women
Less Common Risk Factors
- Less common risk factors in the development of thyroid nodules include:
- Oral contraceptive use
- Use of statins
- Associated with a reduced risk of nodules on ultrasound
- Reduced prevalence, number and volume of thyroid nodules
- A history of papillary thyroid cancer in at least one first-degree family member is associated with an increased risk of a nodule being malignant
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increases the relative risk (RR) for thyroid cancer to 3.26; if transplantation occurred prior to age 10, the RR was 24.6.
- ↑ Belfiore A, La Rosa GL, La Porta GA, Giuffrida D, Milazzo G, Lupo L, Regalbuto C, Vigneri R (1992). "Cancer risk in patients with cold thyroid nodules: relevance of iodine intake, sex, age, and multinodularity". Am. J. Med. 93 (4): 363–9. PMID 1415299.
- ↑ Belfiore A, Giuffrida D, La Rosa GL, Ippolito O, Russo G, Fiumara A, Vigneri R, Filetti S (1989). "High frequency of cancer in cold thyroid nodules occurring at young age". Acta Endocrinol. 121 (2): 197–202. PMID 2773619.
- ↑ MORTENSEN JD, WOOLNER LB, BENNETT WA (1955). "Gross and microscopic findings in clinically normal thyroid glands". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 15 (10): 1270–80. doi:10.1210/jcem-15-10-1270. PMID 13263417.
- ↑ Knudsen N, Bülow I, Laurberg P, Ovesen L, Perrild H, Jørgensen T (2002). "Association of tobacco smoking with goiter in a low-iodine-intake area". Arch. Intern. Med. 162 (4): 439–43. PMID 11863477.
- ↑ Valeix P, Faure P, Bertrais S, Vergnaud AC, Dauchet L, Hercberg S (2008). "Effects of light to moderate alcohol consumption on thyroid volume and thyroid function". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 68 (6): 988–95. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.03123.x. PMID 18031329.
- ↑ Rossing MA, Voigt LF, Wicklund KG, Daling JR (2000). "Reproductive factors and risk of papillary thyroid cancer in women". Am. J. Epidemiol. 151 (8): 765–72. PMID 10965973.
- ↑ Antonelli A, Ferri C, Fallahi P, Pampana A, Ferrari SM, Barani L, Marchi S, Ferrannini E (2007). "Thyroid cancer in HCV-related chronic hepatitis patients: a case-control study". Thyroid. 17 (5): 447–51. doi:10.1089/thy.2006.0194. PMID 17542674.
- ↑ Völzke H, Friedrich N, Schipf S, Haring R, Lüdemann J, Nauck M, Dörr M, Brabant G, Wallaschofski H (2007). "Association between serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels and thyroid disorders in a population-based study". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92 (10): 4039–45. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-0816. PMID 17666480.
- ↑ Spinos N, Terzis G, Crysanthopoulou A, Adonakis G, Markou KB, Vervita V, Koukouras D, Tsapanos V, Decavalas G, Kourounis G, Georgopoulos NA (2007). "Increased frequency of thyroid nodules and breast fibroadenomas in women with uterine fibroids". Thyroid. 17 (12): 1257–9. doi:10.1089/thy.2006.0330. PMID 17988198.
- ↑ Knudsen N, Bülow I, Laurberg P, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Jørgensen T (2002). "Low goitre prevalence among users of oral contraceptives in a population sample of 3712 women". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 57 (1): 71–6. PMID 12100072.
- ↑ Cappelli C, Castellano M, Pirola I, De Martino E, Gandossi E, Delbarba A, Salvi A, Rosei EA (2008). "Reduced thyroid volume and nodularity in dyslipidaemic patients on statin treatment". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 68 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02982.x. PMID 17666091.
- ↑ Lupoli G, Vitale G, Caraglia M, Fittipaldi MR, Abbruzzese A, Tagliaferri P, Bianco AR (1999). "Familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a new clinical entity". Lancet. 353 (9153): 637–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)08004-0. PMID 10030330.
- ↑ Cohen A, Rovelli A, Merlo DF, van Lint MT, Lanino E, Bresters D, Ceppi M, Bocchini V, Tichelli A, Socié G (2007). "Risk for secondary thyroid carcinoma after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: an EBMT Late Effects Working Party Study". J. Clin. Oncol. 25 (17): 2449–54. doi:10.1200/JCO.2006.08.9276. PMID 17557958.