Autoimmune disease

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Autoimmune diseases
ICD-9 279.4
OMIM 109100
DiseasesDB 28805
MedlinePlus 000816
MeSH D001327

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Overview[edit]

Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body attacks its own cells. This may be restricted to certain organs (e.g. in thyroiditis) or involve a particular tissue in different places (e.g. Goodpasture's disease which may affect the basement membrane in both the lung and the kidney). The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication which decreases the immune response.

Occurrence and onset[edit]

Hormone levels have been shown to affect the severity of some autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Other causes may include the presence of fetal cells in the maternal bloodstream, i.e. microchimerism. <ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Autoimmune diseases[edit]

It is possible to classify autoimmune diseases by corresponding type of hypersensitivity: type II, type III, or type IV. (No type of autoimmune disease mimics type I hypersensitivity.)<ref name="isbn0-8153-4093-1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Name Accepted/
suspected
Hypersensitivity Autoantibody
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) replace|{{#invoke:String|replace|Autoimmune+Diseases|+|%20}}| |%20}} Autoimmune+Diseases] at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)</ref>
Addison's disease Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/>
Alopecia areata Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/>
Ankylosing spondylitis Doubtful<ref name = "Mesh"/>
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/>
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Accepted<ref name = "urlAutoimmune Disorders: Immune Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition"/> II
Autoimmune hepatitis Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> Anti-Smooth Muscle Actin
Autoimmune inner ear disease citation CitationClass=web

}} </ref> ||

Bullous pemphigoid Accepted<ref name = "urlAutoimmune Disorders: Immune Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition"/> II Anti-Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1 and 2 (Hemidesmosome antigens)
Coeliac disease citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref><ref name="pmid16234635">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation

CitationClass=journal

}}</ref><ref name="pmid16214317">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation

CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> || IV?? || Anti-transglutaminase

Chagas disease citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> ||

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> <ref name="pmid17450149">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation

CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> ||

Crohns Disease (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted<ref name="Mesh" /> IV
Dermatomyositis Accepted<ref name = "urlPolymyositis and Dermatomyositis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue: Merck Manual Home Edition"/>
Diabetes mellitus type 1 Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> IV
Endometriosis citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> ||

Goodpasture's syndrome Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> II Anti-Basement Membrane Collagen Type IV Protein
Graves' disease Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> II
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> IV Anti-ganglioside
Hashimoto's disease Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> IV
Hidradenitis suppurativa citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref> ||

Kawasaki disease Suspected
IgA nephropathy Suspected
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> II
Interstitial cystitis citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> ||

Lupus erythematosus Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> III
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/>
Morphea citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> ||

Multiple sclerosis (MS) Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> IV Anti-Myelin Basic Protein
Myasthenia gravis Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> II
Narcolepsy citation CitationClass=journal

}} </ref> ||

Neuromyotonia citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> ||

Pemphigus Vulgaris Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/> II Anti-Desmogein 3
Pernicious anaemia citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref> || II ||

Psoriasis Suspected<ref>National Psoriasis Foundation, http://www.psoriasis.org/home/learn01.php</ref>
Psoriatic Arthritis Suspected<ref>National Psoriasis Foundation, http://www.psoriasis.org/home/learn02.php</ref>
Polymyositis citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref> ||

Primary biliary cirrhosis citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref> || || Anti-p62, Anti-sp100, Anti-Mitochondrial(M2)

Rheumatoid arthritis Accepted<ref name="Mesh"/> III Rheumatoid factor
Schizophrenia citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation

CitationClass=journal

}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation

CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> ||

Scleroderma Suspected<ref name="pmid15561734"/> Anti-topoisomerase
Sjögren's syndrome Accepted<ref name = "Mesh"/>
Stiff person syndrome Suspected
Temporal arteritis (also known as "giant cell arteritis") Accepted<ref name="Mesh" /> IV
Ulcerative Colitis (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted<ref name="Mesh" /> IV
Vasculitis citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref> || III

Vitiligo citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

CitationClass=web

}}</ref> ||

Wegener's granulomatosis citation CitationClass=journal

}}</ref> || || Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic(cANCA)

Development of therapies[edit]

In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patient’s immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In inflammatory diseases, it is the overreaction of the immune system, and its subsequent downstream signaling (TNF, IFN, etc), which causes problems.

A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than eighty illnesses caused by autoimmunity. It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years.<ref>Noel R. Rose and Ian R. MacKay, “The Autoimmune Diseases” fourth edition</ref>

Currently, a considerable amount of research is being conducted into treatment of these conditions. According to a report from Frost & Sullivan, the total alliance payouts in the autoimmune/inflammation segment from 1997 to 2002 totaled $489.8 million, where Eli Lilly, Suntory, Procter & Gamble, Encysive, and Novartis together account for 98.6 percent of alliance payouts.<ref>Frost & Sullivan Report, “Antibody Technology Developments” September 2005</ref>

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

See also[edit]

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