Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sogand Goudarzi, MD [2]


TTP may be caused by decreasing function or amount of von Willebrand factor(vWF) cleaving protease ADAMTS13 .


Decrease function or amount of von Willebrand factor cleaving protease ADAMTS13 causes TTP.

Hereditary: Insertions, deletions, missense, nonsense point mutations and splice site mutations [1][2] of both alleles of ADAMTS13 genes on chromosome 9q34 cause decrease in the amount or activity of the enzyme.


ADAMTS13 is a zinc and calcium requiring 190,000 Dalton glycosylated protein that is encoded on chromosome 9q34. It is a disintegrin and a metalloprotease with 8 thrombospondin 1-like domains composed of an aminoterminal metalloprotease followed by a disintegrin domain; a thrombospondin 1-like domain; a cysteine-rich domain and an adjacent spacer portion; seven additional thrombospondin 1-like domains and 2 other different types of domains that resemble each other at the carboxyl-terminal end of the molecule. It cleaves a tyrosine 1605-1606 methionine peptide bond of VWF. This protease is 13 in a family of 19 distinct ADAMTS-type metalloprotease enzymes. It is produced predominantly in endothelial cells for slow, constitutive release into the circulation. Endothelial cells can be stimulated to secrete long vWF strings by inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL8 & IL6, shiga toxins or estrogen). ADAMTS13 is inhibited by EDTA and therefore functional assays of the enzyme are usually performed using plasma anticoagulated with citrate (a weaker divalent cation binder than EDTA).

TTP, as with other microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (MAHAs), is caused by a spontaneous aggregation of platelets and activation of coagulation in the small blood vessels. When stimulated, endothelial cells secrete the ultra-large VWF multimers in long strips that remain anchored to the cell membrane. The long VWF multimeric strings are sticky to the glycoprotein Iba components of platelet GPIb-IX-V surface receptors. The initial adherence of platelets via the GPIb receptors to the long vWF strings and the subsequent coherence of additional platelets to each other (aggregation) via activated GPIIb/IIIa receptors produces potentially occlusive platelet thrombi. Platelets are consumed in the coagulation process, and bind fibrin, the end product of the coagulation pathway. These platelet fibrin complexes form microthrombi which circulate in the vasculature and cause shearing of red blood cells, resulting in hemolysis.


  1. Y. Fujimura, M. Matsumoto, A. Isonishi, H. Yagi, K. Kokame, K. Soejima, M. Murata & T. Miyata (2011). "Natural history of Upshaw-Schulman syndrome based on ADAMTS13 gene analysis in Japan". Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 9 Suppl 1: 283–301. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04341.x. PMID 21781265. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Luca A. Lotta, Haifeng M. Wu, Ian J. Mackie, Marina Noris, Agnes Veyradier, Marie A. Scully, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Paul Coppo, Ri Liesner, Roberta Donadelli, Chantal Loirat, Richard A. Gibbs, April Horne, Shangbin Yang, Isabella Garagiola, Khaled M. Musallam & Flora Peyvandi (2012). "Residual plasmatic activity of ADAMTS13 is correlated with phenotype severity in congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura". Blood. 120 (2): 440–448. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-01-403113. PMID 22529288. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Fujimura, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Isonishi, A.; Yagi, H.; Kokame, K.; Soejima, K.; Murata, M.; Miyata, T. (2011). "Natural history of Upshaw-Schulman syndrome based on ADAMTS13 gene analysis in Japan". Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 9: 283–301. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04341.x. ISSN 1538-7933.

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