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TNF receptor-associated factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRAF1 gene.[1]


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor (TNFR) associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins associate with, and mediate the signal transduction from various receptors of the TNFR superfamily. This protein and TRAF2 form a heterodimeric complex, which is required for TNF-alpha-mediated activation of MAPK8/JNK and NF-kappaB. The protein complex formed by this protein and TRAF2 also interacts with IAP, and thus mediates the anti-apoptotic signals from TNF receptors. The expression of this protein can be induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is found to interact with this and other TRAF proteins; this interaction is thought to link LMP1-mediated B lymphocyte transformation to the signal transduction from TNFR family receptors.[2] TRAF1 also functions as a negative regulator of inflammation by interfering with the linear ubiquitination of NEMO downstream of TLR signaling.[3] This explains why TRAF1 polymorphisms cause an increased risk for rheumatic diseases.[4]


TRAF1 has been shown to interact with:


  1. Rothe M, Wong SC, Henzel WJ, Goeddel DV (September 1994). "A novel family of putative signal transducers associated with the cytoplasmic domain of the 75 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor". Cell. 78 (4): 681–92. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90532-0. PMID 8069916.
  2. "Entrez Gene: TRAF1 TNF receptor-associated factor 1".
  3. Abdul-Sater, Ali A; Edilova, Maria I; Clouthier, Derek L; Mbanwi, Achire; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Watts, Tania H. "The signaling adaptor TRAF1 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor signaling and this underlies its role in rheumatic disease". Nature Immunology. doi:10.1038/ni.3618.
  4. Plenge, Robert M.; Seielstad, Mark; Padyukov, Leonid; Lee, Annette T.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Ding, Bo; Liew, Anthony; Khalili, Houman; Chandrasekaran, Alamelu (2007-09-20). "TRAF1–C5 as a Risk Locus for Rheumatoid Arthritis — A Genomewide Study". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (12): 1199–1209. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa073491. ISSN 0028-4793. PMC 2636867. PMID 17804836.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Roy N, Deveraux QL, Takahashi R, Salvesen GS, Reed JC (Dec 1997). "The c-IAP-1 and c-IAP-2 proteins are direct inhibitors of specific caspases". EMBO J. 16 (23): 6914–25. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.23.6914. PMC 1170295. PMID 9384571.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Li X, Yang Y, Ashwell JD (March 2002). "TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2". Nature. 416 (6878): 345–7. doi:10.1038/416345a. PMID 11907583.
  7. Shu HB, Takeuchi M, Goeddel DV (November 1996). "The tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 signal transducers TRAF2 and c-IAP1 are components of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (24): 13973–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.13973. PMC 19479. PMID 8943045.
  8. Shu HB, Halpin DR, Goeddel DV (June 1997). "Casper is a FADD- and caspase-related inducer of apoptosis". Immunity. 6 (6): 751–63. doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(00)80450-1. PMID 9208847.
  9. Kataoka T, Budd RC, Holler N, Thome M, Martinon F, Irmler M, Burns K, Hahne M, Kennedy N, Kovacsovics M, Tschopp J (June 2000). "The caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP promotes activation of NF-kappaB and Erk signaling pathways". Curr. Biol. 10 (11): 640–8. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(00)00512-1. PMID 10837247.
  10. Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes". Cell. 114 (2): 181–90. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00521-x. PMID 12887920.
  11. Leo E, Deveraux QL, Buchholtz C, Welsh K, Matsuzawa S, Stennicke HR, Salvesen GS, Reed JC (March 2001). "TRAF1 is a substrate of caspases activated during tumor necrosis factor receptor-alpha-induced apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (11): 8087–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009450200. PMID 11098060.
  12. Oukka M, Kim ST, Lugo G, Sun J, Wu LC, Glimcher LH (January 2002). "A mammalian homolog of Drosophila schnurri, KRC, regulates TNF receptor-driven responses and interacts with TRAF2". Mol. Cell. 9 (1): 121–31. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(01)00434-8. PMID 11804591.
  13. Galibert L, Tometsko ME, Anderson DM, Cosman D, Dougall WC (Dec 1998). "The involvement of multiple tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factors in the signaling mechanisms of receptor activator of NF-kappaB, a member of the TNFR superfamily". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (51): 34120–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.51.34120. PMID 9852070.
  14. Kim HH, Lee DE, Shin JN, Lee YS, Jeon YM, Chung CH, Ni J, Kwon BS, Lee ZH (January 1999). "Receptor activator of NF-kappaB recruits multiple TRAF family adaptors and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase". FEBS Lett. 443 (3): 297–302. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(98)01731-1. PMID 10025951.
  15. Song HY, Rothe M, Goeddel DV (June 1996). "The tumor necrosis factor-inducible zinc finger protein A20 interacts with TRAF1/TRAF2 and inhibits NF-kappaB activation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (13): 6721–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.13.6721. PMC 39093. PMID 8692885.
  16. Heyninck K, Beyaert R (January 1999). "The cytokine-inducible zinc finger protein A20 inhibits IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activation at the level of TRAF6". FEBS Lett. 442 (2–3): 147–50. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(98)01645-7. PMID 9928991.
  17. Lee SY, Lee SY, Choi Y (April 1997). "TRAF-interacting protein (TRIP): a novel component of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)- and CD30-TRAF signaling complexes that inhibits TRAF2-mediated NF-kappaB activation". J. Exp. Med. 185 (7): 1275–85. doi:10.1084/jem.185.7.1275. PMC 2196258. PMID 9104814.
  18. Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B, Superti-Furga G (February 2004). "A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97–105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216.
  19. Takeuchi M, Rothe M, Goeddel DV (August 1996). "Anatomy of TRAF2. Distinct domains for nuclear factor-kappaB activation and association with tumor necrosis factor signaling proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (33): 19935–42. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.33.19935. PMID 8702708.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Abdul-Sater AA, Edilova MI, Clouthier DL, Mbanwi A, Kremmer E, Watts TH (November 2016). "The signaling adaptor TRAF1 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor signaling and this underlies its role in rheumatic disease". Nat. Immunol. doi:10.1038/ni.3618. PMID 27893701.

Further reading