Stress cardiomyopathy historical perspective

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Stress cardiomyopathy Microchapters



Historical Perspective




Differentiating Stress Cardiomyopathy from other Diseases

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Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Unstable angina/non ST elevation myocardial infarction in Stress (Takotsubo) Cardiomyopathy

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dima Nimri, M.D. [2]


Stress cardiomyopathy is a relatively new disease, with the first case documented in literature in Japan in 1991. However, cases of death upon going through severe emotional or psychological stress have been described as early as the biblical times.

Historical Perspective

  • Stress cardiomyopathy is a fairly new disease, which was first reported in Japan in 1991 and the term Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy came to use.[1][2]
  • The term “takotsubo" was taken from the Japanese name for an octopus trap which resembles the shape of systolic apical ballooning of the left ventricle.
  • However, the term "Broken Heart" was used in literature before 1990. While it was not labeled as a disease entity, death from psychological or emotional stress has been described even in biblical times.[3]
  • After 2000, there were many reported cases of chest pain and associated reversible left ventricular dysfunction, which were linked to preceding emotional stress. Such cases had normal coronary angiography findings, as well as minimal rise in serum cardiac enzymes.[2]
  • Since the cardiomyopathy is often triggered by emotional stress, such as the death of a loved one, the condition is sometimes also referred to as the Broken Heart Syndrome. In 2006, the syndrome was renamed Stress Cardiomyopathy, and was classified as an acquired cardiomyopathy.[4]


  1. Omerovic E (2011). "How to think about stress-induced cardiomyopathy?--Think "out of the box"!". Scand. Cardiovasc. J. 45 (2): 67–71. doi:10.3109/14017431.2011.565794. PMID 21401402.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Akashi YJ, Goldstein DS, Barbaro G, Ueyama T (2008). "Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a new form of acute, reversible heart failure". Circulation. 118 (25): 2754–62. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.767012. PMC 4893309. PMID 19106400.
  3. Y-Hassan S, Yamasaki K (2013). "History of takotsubo syndrome: is the syndrome really described as a disease entity first in 1990? Some inaccuracies". Int. J. Cardiol. 166 (3): 736–7. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.183. PMID 23073280.
  4. Maron BJ, Towbin JA, Thiene G; et al. (2006). "Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention". Circulation. 113 (14): 1807–16. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.174287. PMID 16567565.

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