Stress cardiomyopathy epidemiology and demographics

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Stress cardiomyopathy Microchapters



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Differentiating Stress Cardiomyopathy from other Diseases

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dima Nimri, M.D. [2]


The true incidence and prevalence of stress cardiomyopathy is unknown. However, this disease most commonly affects post-menopausal women, with the mean age of diagnosis ranging between 58-75 years.



  • The true incidence of stress cardiomyopathy is unknown and is thought to be underestimated, because there is a number of sub-clinical and milder forms of the disease, which do not come to clinical attention.[1] However, approximately 1-2% of patients thought to have acute coronary syndrome or myocardial infarction at initial presentation eventually receive the diagnosis of stress cardiomyopathy instead.[2][3][4][5]
  • In the United States, the overall incidence of stress cardiomyopathy is estimated at 5.2 per 100,000 cases in women and 0.6 per 100,000 cases in men.[6]


  • The prevalence of stress cardiomyopathy is unknown.



  • Stress cardiomyopathy occurs mostly in older people, mostly in post-menopausal women.[2][7][8]
  • The mean age of diagnosis ranges between 58 to 75 years old, with less than 3% of patients being younger than 50 years old at presentation.[2]


Stress cardiomyopathy is much more common in women, with female patients accounting for 80-100% of patients.[7][9][1][2][8]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Omerovic E (2011). "How to think about stress-induced cardiomyopathy?--Think "out of the box"!". Scand. Cardiovasc. J. 45 (2): 67–71. doi:10.3109/14017431.2011.565794. PMID 21401402.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Prasad A, Lerman A, Rihal CS (2008). "Apical ballooning syndrome (Tako-Tsubo or stress cardiomyopathy): a mimic of acute myocardial infarction". Am. Heart J. 155 (3): 408–17. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2007.11.008. PMID 18294473.
  3. Elian D, Osherov A, Matetzky S, Hod H, Guetta V, Feinberg MS, Di Segni E (2006). "Left ventricular apical ballooning: not an uncommon variant of acute myocardial infarction in women". Clin Cardiol. 29 (1): 9–12. PMID 16477771.
  4. Pillière R, Mansencal N, Digne F, Lacombe P, Joseph T, Dubourg O (2006). "Prevalence of tako-tsubo syndrome in a large urban agglomeration". Am. J. Cardiol. 98 (5): 662–5. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.03.048. PMID 16923457.
  5. Parodi G, Del Pace S, Carrabba N, Salvadori C, Memisha G, Simonetti I, Antoniucci D, Gensini GF (2007). "Incidence, clinical findings, and outcome of women with left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome". Am. J. Cardiol. 99 (2): 182–5. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.07.080. PMID 17223415.
  6. Chou AY, Saw J (2014). "Basis for sex-specific expression of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, cardiac syndrome X, and spontaneous coronary artery dissection". Can J Cardiol. 30 (7): 738–46. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2013.12.008. PMID 24656530.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Akashi YJ, Goldstein DS, Barbaro G, Ueyama T (2008). "Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a new form of acute, reversible heart failure". Circulation. 118 (25): 2754–62. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.767012. PMC 4893309. PMID 19106400.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bybee KA, Prasad A, Barsness GW, Lerman A, Jaffe AS, Murphy JG, Wright RS, Rihal CS (2004). "Clinical characteristics and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts in women with transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome". Am. J. Cardiol. 94 (3): 343–6. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.04.030. PMID 15276100.
  9. Templin C, Ghadri JR, Diekmann J, Napp LC, Bataiosu DR, Jaguszewski M, Cammann VL, Sarcon A, Geyer V, Neumann CA, Seifert B, Hellermann J, Schwyzer M, Eisenhardt K, Jenewein J, Franke J, Katus HA, Burgdorf C, Schunkert H, Moeller C, Thiele H, Bauersachs J, Tschöpe C, Schultheiss HP, Laney CA, Rajan L, Michels G, Pfister R, Ukena C, Böhm M, Erbel R, Cuneo A, Kuck KH, Jacobshagen C, Hasenfuss G, Karakas M, Koenig W, Rottbauer W, Said SM, Braun-Dullaeus RC, Cuculi F, Banning A, Fischer TA, Vasankari T, Airaksinen KE, Fijalkowski M, Rynkiewicz A, Pawlak M, Opolski G, Dworakowski R, MacCarthy P, Kaiser C, Osswald S, Galiuto L, Crea F, Dichtl W, Franz WM, Empen K, Felix SB, Delmas C, Lairez O, Erne P, Bax JJ, Ford I, Ruschitzka F, Prasad A, Lüscher TF (2015). "Clinical Features and Outcomes of Takotsubo (Stress) Cardiomyopathy". N. Engl. J. Med. 373 (10): 929–38. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1406761. PMID 26332547.

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