Sick sinus syndrome causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.[2] Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [3]


Sick sinus syndrome can result in many abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), including sinus arrest, sinus node exit block, sinus bradycardia, and other types of bradycardia (slow heart rate). Sick sinus syndrome may also be caused by a variety of conditions including but not limited to myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, drugs or toxins, infections,medications, electrolyte abnormalities, hypothermia, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and acidosis.


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Common causes of sick sinus syndrome include:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]


  1. Weintraub M, Hes JP, Rotmensch HH, Soferman G, Liron M (April 1983). "Extreme sinus bradycardia associated with lithium therapy". Isr. J. Med. Sci. 19 (4): 353–5. PMID 6406388.
  2. Thormann J, Neuss H, Schlepper M, Mitrovic V (August 1981). "Effects of clonidine on sinus node function in man". Chest. 80 (2): 201–6. doi:10.1378/chest.80.2.201. PMID 7018848.
  3. Puljiz I, Beus A, Kuzman I, Seiwerth S (June 2005). "Electrocardiographic changes and myocarditis in trichinellosis: a retrospective study of 154 patients". Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 99 (4): 403–11. doi:10.1179/136485905X36307. PMID 15949188.
  4. Assimakopoulos SF, Michalopoulou S, Papakonstantinou C, Lekkou A, Syrokosta I, Gogos C (June 2007). "A case of severe sinus bradycardia complicating anicteric leptospirosis". Am. J. Med. Sci. 333 (6): 381–3. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3180659578. PMID 17570992.
  5. Cunha BA, Thermidor M, Mohan S, Valsamis AS, Johnson DH (2005). "Fever of unknown origin: subacute thyroiditis versus typhoid fever". Heart Lung. 34 (2): 147–51. doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2004.07.003. PMID 15761461.
  6. Cunha BA (December 2000). "The diagnostic significance of relative bradycardia in infectious disease". Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6 (12): 633–4. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0691.2000.0194f.x. PMID 11284920.
  7. Semelka M, Gera J, Usman S (2013). "Sick sinus syndrome: a review". Am Fam Physician. 87 (10): 691–6. PMID 23939447.
  8. Rubenstein, Joel J.; Schulman, Charles L.; Yurchak, Peter M.; Desanctis, Roman W. (1972). "Clinical Spectrum of the Sick Sinus Syndrome". Circulation. 46 (1): 5–13. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.46.1.5. ISSN 0009-7322.

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