Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. 
Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (aka α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) is an enzyme complex most commonly known for its role in the citric acid cycle.
Much like pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, this enzyme forms a complex composed of three components:
|E1||EC 188.8.131.52||oxoglutarate dehydrogenase||OGDH||thiamine pyrophosphate|
|E2||EC 184.108.40.206||dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase||DLST||lipoic acid|
|E3||EC 220.127.116.11||dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase||DLD||NAD+|
In fact, three classes of these multienzyme complexes have been characterized, one specific for pyruvate, a second specific for 2-oxoglutarate and a third specificbranched-chain α-keto acids.
Nomenclature and classification
The official name of this enzyme is oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDC) although it is also commonly known as α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (AKGDH).
- CAS: 9031-02-1
This enzyme participates in three different pathways:
- Citric acid cycle (KEGG link: MAP00020)
- Lysine degradation (KEGG link: MAP00310)
- Tryptophan metabolism (KEGG link: MAP00380)
The following values are from Azotobacter vinelandii (1):
- KM: 0.14 ± 0.04 mM
- Vmax : 9 ± 3 μmol.min-1.mg-1
Citric acid cycle
The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme in the citric acid cycle is:
- α-ketoglutarate + NAD+ + CoA → Succinyl CoA + CO2 + NADH
This reaction proceeds in three steps:
- decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate,
- and subsequent transfer to CoA, which forms the end product, succinyl CoA.
ΔG°' for this reaction is -7.2 kcal mol-1. The energy needed for this oxidation is conserved in the formation of a thioester bond of succinyl CoA.
Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase is a key control point in the citric acid cycle. It is inhibited by its products, succinyl CoA and NADH. A high energy charge in the cell will also be inhibitive.
2-Oxo-glutarate dehydrogrenase is an autoantigen recognized in primary biliary cirrhosis, a form of acute liver failure. These antibodies appear to recognize oxidized protein that has resulted from inflamatory immune responses. Some of these inflamatory responses are explained by gluten sensitivity. Other mitochondrial autoantigens include pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, which are antigens recognized by anti-mitochondrial antibodies.
- Bunik V, Westphal AH, de Kok A: Kinetic properties of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii evidence for the formation of a precatalytic complex with 2-oxoglutarate. Eur J Biochem 2000; 267(12): 3583-91. PMID 10848975.
- Oxoglutarate+dehydrogenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- ↑ Leung PS, Rossaro L, Davis PA; et al. (2007). "Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: Implications for primary biliary cirrhosis". doi:10.1002/hep.21828. PMID 17657817.