Nasopharyngeal carcinoma causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Homa Najafi, M.D.[2]Faizan Sheraz, M.D. [3]


Common causes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma include Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection), Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection), and consumption of salted fish as a source of N-nitrosamine.


Common Causes

Common causes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma may include:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]


  1. Jia, Wei-Hua; Qin, Hai-De (2012). "Non-viral environmental risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A systematic review". Seminars in Cancer Biology. 22 (2): 117–126. doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2012.01.009. ISSN 1044-579X.
  2. Jia, Wei-Hua; Luo, Xiang-Yu; Feng, Bing-Jian; Ruan, Hong-Lian; Bei, Jin-Xin; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Qin, Hai-De; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Chen, Li-Zhen; Yao, Shugart Yin; Zeng, Yi-Xin (2010). "Traditional Cantonese diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk: a large-scale case-control study in Guangdong, China". BMC Cancer. 10 (1). doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-446. ISSN 1471-2407.
  3. Guo, Xiuchan; Johnson, Randall C.; Deng, Hong; Liao, Jian; Guan, Li; Nelson, George W.; Tang, Mingzhong; Zheng, Yuming; de The, Guy; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zeng, Yi (2009). "Evaluation of nonviral risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a high-risk population of Southern China". International Journal of Cancer. 124 (12): 2942–2947. doi:10.1002/ijc.24293. ISSN 0020-7136.
  4. Maxwell, Jessica H.; Kumar, Bhavna; Feng, Felix Y.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Cordell, Kitrina G.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Prince, Mark E.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Stoerker, Jay; Walline, Heather; Carey, Thomas E.; Bradford, Carol R. (2009). "HPV-positive/p16-positive/EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma in white North Americans". Head & Neck: NA–NA. doi:10.1002/hed.21216. ISSN 1043-3074.
  5. Chan, Yap-Hang; Lo, Ching-Man; Lau, Hiu-Ying; Lam, Tai-Hing (2014). "Vertically transmitted nasopharyngeal infection of the human papillomavirus: Does it play an aetiological role in nasopharyngeal cancer?". Oral Oncology. 50 (5): 326–329. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.12.025. ISSN 1368-8375.
  6. Dogan, Snjezana; Hedberg, Matthew L.; Ferris, Robert L.; Rath, Tanya J.; Assaad, Adel M.; Chiosea, Simion I. (2014). "Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a low-incidence population". Head & Neck. 36 (4): 511–516. doi:10.1002/hed.23318. ISSN 1043-3074.
  7. Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E. (2014). "Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis". International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics. 88 (3): 580–588. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.11.246. ISSN 0360-3016.
  8. Radha Raghupathy, Edwin Pun Hui & Anthony Tak Cheung Chan (2014). "Epstein-Barr virus as a paradigm in nasopharyngeal cancer: from lab to clinic". American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Annual Meeting: 149–153. doi:10.14694/EdBook_AM.2014.34.149. PMID 24857071.
  9. Pathmanathan, Rajadurai; Prasad, Umapati; Sadler, Robert; Flynn, Kathryn; Raab-Traub, Nancy (1995). "Clonal Proliferations of Cells Infected with Epstein–Barr Virus in Preinvasive Lesions Related to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 333 (11): 693–698. doi:10.1056/NEJM199509143331103. ISSN 0028-4793.
  10. A. S. Chan, K. F. To, K. W. Lo, K. F. Mak, W. Pak, B. Chiu, G. M. Tse, M. Ding, X. Li, J. C. Lee & D. P. Huang (2000). "High frequency of chromosome 3p deletion in histologically normal nasopharyngeal epithelia from southern Chinese". Cancer research. 60 (19): 5365–5370. PMID 11034072. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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