Clubbing causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kiran Singh, M.D. [2]


Life threatening causes of clubbing include lung cancer, tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels, and tricuspid atresia. Other common causes of clubbing are bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and empyema.


Life Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Aneurysm, arterial vascular prosthesis infections, arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous malformations, atrial myxoma, atrial septal defect, cerebrovascular insult, chronic hypoxia, common ventricle, congenital cardiovascular malformations, congestive heart failure, cyanotic congenital heart disease, conotruncal heart malformations, double outlet right ventricle, Eisenmenger syndrome, endocarditis, erythromelalgia , patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension, right-to-left shunting, subacute bacterial endocarditis, Taussig-Bing syndrome, tetralogy of fallot, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, transposition of the great vessels, tricuspid atresia, truncus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis, heart cancer, ventricular septal defect.
Chemical / poisoning Ammonia inhalation, chlorine inhalation, diacetyl inhalation, hydrogen bromide inhalation, hydrogen chloride inhalation, hydrogen fluoride inhalation, hydrogen sulfide inhalation, methyl isocyanate inhalation, nitrogen oxide inhalation, Ozone inhalation, phosgene inhalation, polyamide-amine dyes inhalation, sulfur dioxide inhalation, thionyl chloride inhalation
Dermatologic Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, Shell nail syndrome
Drug Side Effect Cannabis, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, Interferon gamma, Senna
Ear Nose Throat Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Endocrine Graves disease, Thyroid cancer, Thyrotoxicosis, POEMS syndrome
Environmental Mesothelioma, silicosis
Gastroenterologic Achalasia,celiac sprue, chronic liver disease, chronic obstructive jaundice, cirrhosis of liver, Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, gastrointestinal neoplasms, hepatoma, hepatopulmonary syndrome, Inflammatory bowel disease, leiomyoma of the esophagus, liver tumors, malabsorption, oesophageal cancer, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, small bowel lymphoma, stomach cancer, ulcerative colitis, Whipple disease
Genetic Celiac disease, crohn's disease, Cystic fibrosis, dextrocardia-bronchiectasis-sinusitis, Ebstein's anomaly, Eisenmenger syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Taussig-Bing syndrome , hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, Ivemark syndrome, Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia , pachydermoperiostosis
Hematologic Hodgkin lymphoma, Myelofibrosis
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Aspergillosis, empyema, Infective endocarditis, lymphadenitis, pulmonary abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, tuberculosis,
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia
Neurologic Cerebrovascular insult, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
Nutritional / Metabolic Celiac sprue, cystic fibrosis
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Atrial myxoma, bronchial carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, lung cancer, mesothelioma, metastatic melanoma, myelofibrosis , nasopharyngeal carcinoma, pancoast tumor, pleural fibroma, pleural mesothelioma,POEMS syndrome, Stomach cancer

thyroid cancer, thymus cancer

Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Cannabis
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Asbestosis, asthma complicated by infection, berylliosis,bronchial carcinoma,bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchogenic carcinoma, chronic hypoxia,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ,cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis,cystic fibrosis, emphysema,empyema,extrathoracic disease, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, familial interstitial fibrosis, familial pulmonary arterial hypertension, fibrosing alveolitis, Hamman-Rich Syndrome , hepatopulmonary syndrome, hypersensitivity pneumonitis,hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, idiopathic diffuse interstitial fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension , interstitial fibrosis, interstitial lung disease,interstitial pneumonitis, lipoid pneumonia,lung cancer, Marie-bamberg syndrome,pancoast tumor, pleural fibroma, pleural mesothelioma,polyarteritis nodosa,primary pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary abscess, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, pulmonary artery sarcoma,pulmonary artery sclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary granuloma, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary lymphoma, pulmonary metastases, pulmonary surfactant protein b, deficiency, pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonic stenosis, sarcoidosis, Secondary pulmonary hypertension, silicosis, surfactant metabolism dysfunction.
Renal / Electrolyte Polyarteritis nodosa
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Alpha heavy chain disease, celiac sprue, crohn's disease, Fischer syndrome, Graves disease, Kindler-weary bullous acrokeratotic poikiloderma, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, polyarteritis nodosa, sarcoidosis.
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Bindewald-ulmer-muller syndrome

Causes in Alphabetical Order


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