Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Bourbon virus infection Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Bourbon virus infection from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings






Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology

CDC on Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology

Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology in the news

Blogs on Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology

Directions to Hospitals Treating Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency

Risk calculators and risk factors for Bourbon virus infection pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]


Bourbon virus is a negative sense segmented RNA virus belonging to the genus Thogotovirus, family Orthomyxovirida. It is transmitted by insects and replicates in both arthropods and vertebrate hosts. The negative sense RNA virus replicates within the nuclei of the host cells. Thogoto virus Infection induces a sustained type 1 interferon response in the host until the adaptive immunity takes effect. Microscopically, bourbon viruses are 80-120nm in diameter with a genome size of approximately 10Kb.


Bourbon virus is a negative sense segmented RNA virus which belongs to the genus Thogotovirus, family Orthomyxovirida.


  • Bourbon virus is transmitted mainly by ticks, although other arthropods may also be involved in transmission.
  • The virus is able to replicate in vertebrate and tick cells.



Virology and replication

Host response


Negative stranded RNA virus genome replication

Associated conditions

Few rare conditions associated with bourbon virus infection are: [12]

Gross Pathology

Rash may be the first sign of infection.

  • The rash of Bourbon virus infection is usually circular and located at the site of the tick bite.

Rash after tick bite

Microscopic Pathology

Bourbon virus


  1. "Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and the Sorting of Internalized Proteins - Molecular Cell Biology - NCBI Bookshelf".
  2. "" (PDF).
  3. Albo C, Martín J, Portela A (1996). "The 5' ends of Thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae) mRNAs are homogeneous in both length and sequence". J. Virol. 70 (12): 9013–7. PMC 191002. PMID 8971034.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Microbiology Society Journals | Functional comparison of the two gene products of Thogoto virus segment 6".
  5. Kochs G, Bauer S, Vogt C, Frenz T, Tschopp J, Kalinke U, Waibler Z (2010). "Thogoto virus infection induces sustained type I interferon responses that depend on RIG-I-like helicase signaling of conventional dendritic cells". J. Virol. 84 (23): 12344–50. doi:10.1128/JVI.00931-10. PMC 2976394. PMID 20861272.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Patzina C, Haller O, Kochs G (2014). "Structural requirements for the antiviral activity of the human MxA protein against Thogoto and influenza A virus". J. Biol. Chem. 289 (9): 6020–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.543892. PMC 3937669. PMID 24448803.
  7. Haller O, Kochs G (2011). "Human MxA protein: an interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPase with broad antiviral activity". J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 31 (1): 79–87. doi:10.1089/jir.2010.0076. PMID 21166595.
  8. Frese M, Kochs G, Meier-Dieter U, Siebler J, Haller O (1995). "Human MxA protein inhibits tick-borne Thogoto virus but not Dhori virus". J. Virol. 69 (6): 3904–9. PMC 189115. PMID 7745744.
  9. Pringle CR (1996). "Virus taxonomy 1996 - a bulletin from the Xth International Congress of Virology in Jerusalem". Arch. Virol. 141 (11): 2251–6. PMID 8992952.
  10. Pavlovic J, Haller O, Staeheli P (1992). "Human and mouse Mx proteins inhibit different steps of the influenza virus multiplication cycle". J. Virol. 66 (4): 2564–9. PMC 289059. PMID 1548781.
  11. "The Interferon Antagonist ML Protein of Thogoto Virus Targets General Transcription Factor IIB".
  12. Kosoy OI, Lambert AJ, Hawkinson DJ, Pastula DM, Goldsmith CS, Hunt DC, Staples JE (2015). "Novel thogotovirus associated with febrile illness and death, United States, 2014". Emerging Infect. Dis. 21 (5): 760–4. doi:10.3201/eid2105.150150. PMC 4412252. PMID 25899080.

Template:WH Template:WS