Azotemia causes

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Azotemia Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Azotemia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

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Physical Examination

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Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

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Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.


Disease name] may be caused by [cause1], [cause2], or [cause3].


Common causes of [disease] include [cause1], [cause2], and [cause3].


The most common cause of [disease name] is [cause 1]. Less common causes of [disease name] include [cause 2], [cause 3], and [cause 4].


The cause of [disease name] has not been identified. To review risk factors for the development of [disease name], click here.


Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Cardiac failure, Congestive heart failure, Hypercalcaemia, Hypertension, Hypotension, Renal ischemia, Renal vein thrombosis, Renovascular disease
Chemical/Poisoning Burns, Cadmium, Gold salts, Lithium, Organic solvent, Paraquat, Sulphonamides, Zinc
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Systemic lupus erythematosus,
Drug Side Effect Altretamine, Amikacin, Amphotericin b, Bacitracin, Ciprofloxacin, Cisplatin, Colchicine, Colistimethate, Cyclosporin, Doxycycline, Enalapril, Foscarnet, Gentamicin, Ibrutinib, Kanamycin, Lomustine, Mitomycin c, Netilmicin, Nivolumab, Norfloxacin, Paracetamol, Penicillamine, Pentamidine, Phenacetin, Polymyxin b, Streptomycin, Streptozocin, Tacrolimus, Tenofovir, Zenarestat
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Amyloidosis, Hypercalcaemia
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Hepatitis b, Ileus, Jaundice, Liver failure, Paralytic ileus, Recurrent hereditary polyserositis
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, Proximal renal tubular acidosis, Sickle cell disease
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Hepatitis b, Malaria , Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic Cholestatic jaundice
Oncologic Angiomyolipoma
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Renal/Electrolyte Angiomyolipoma, Chronic interstitial nephritis, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic renal failure, Crescentic glomerulonephritis, Glomerulonephritis, Goodpasture's syndrome, Henoch-schönlein purpura, Hepatorenal syndrome, Hydronephrosis, Interstitial nephritis, Nephritic syndrome, Nephrolithiasis, Nephrotic syndrome, Papillary necrosis, Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, Proximal renal tubular acidosis, Pyelonephritis, Renal ischemia, Renal vein thrombosis, Renovascular disease, Systemic lupus erythematosus, True volume depletion  , Ureteric obstruction, Urethral stricture, Uric plasma levels raised, Uric serum levels raised, Urinary tract infection, Urine retention
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Amyloidosis, Goodpasture's syndrome, Henoch-schönlein purpura, Polyarteritis nodosa, Recurrent hereditary polyserositis, Retroperitoneal fibrosis, Scleroderma, Systemic lupus erythematosus
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Burns, Shock, Trauma
Urologic Chronic interstitial nephritis, Hydronephrosis, Posterior urethral valve, Retroperitoneal fibrosis, Ureteric obstruction, Urethral stricture, Uric plasma levels raised, Uric serum levels raised, Urinary tract infection, Urine retention
Miscellaneous Edema, Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Causes in Alphabetical Order