Hypernatremia classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ahmed Elsaiey, MBBCH [2]

Overview

Hypernatremia can be classified based on the fluid status of the patients into hypovolemic, normovolemic, or hypervolemic hypernatremia.

Classification

  • Hypernatremia can be classified based on the fluid status of the patient into 3 states:[1]
    • Hypovolemic hypernatremia which may be caused by:
      • Vomiting
      • Diarrhea
      • Diuretic use
      • Kidney disease
    • Normovolemic hypernatremia which may be a result of:
      • Fever
      • Decreased thirst
      • Diabetes insipidus
      • Lithium toxicity
    • Hypervolemic hypernatremia which may be caused by:
      • Hyperaldosteronism
      • Administration of saline solution
      • Eating much salt

References

  1. Reynolds RM, Padfield PL, Seckl JR (2006). "Disorders of sodium balance". BMJ. 332 (7543): 702–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7543.702. PMC 1410848. PMID 16565125.

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