Zika virus infection history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yazan Daaboul, M.D., Nate Michalak, B.A., Serge Korjian M.D., Yamuna Kondapally, M.B.B.S[2]


The most common symptoms of Zika virus infection include fever and maculopapular rash. Additional symptoms include arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, retro-orbital pain, and vomiting. The diagnosis of Zika is based on person's recent travel history, symptoms, and test results.


Specific areas of focus when obtaining a history from the patient include any history of:

  • Prior residence in or travel to an areas with local ZIKV transmission.
  • Recent sexual exposure to a person who resided in or travelled to an areas with local ZIKV transmission (With or without diagnosis of ZIKV infection or suggestive symptoms).
  • History of recent blood transfusion.
  • History of recent laboratory exposure of ZIKV (injuries from sharps, etc).


Source: https://www.cdc.gov/
  • The symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of other arboviral infections such as dengue fever and chikungunya.
  • Many patients infected with Zika won't have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. For this reason, many people (approximately 80%) might not realize they have been infected.
  • The pre-symptomatic period varies from 3-12 days, during which viremia may occur.
  • Symptoms of Zika virus infection include the following:[1][2][3]

Common Symptoms

Less Common Symptoms


  1. Zika Virus. For Health Care Providers: Clinical Evaluation & Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). http://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/clinicalevaluation.html Accessed on December 11, 2015
  2. Hayes EB (2009). "Zika virus outside Africa". Emerg Infect Dis. 15 (9): 1347–50. doi:10.3201/eid1509.090442. PMC 2819875. PMID 19788800.
  3. Duffy MR, Chen TH, Hancock WT, Powers AM, Kool JL, Lanciotti RS; et al. (2009). "Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia". N Engl J Med. 360 (24): 2536–43. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0805715. PMID 19516034.