Whipple's disease classification
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sadaf Sharfaei M.D.
Whipple’s disease may be classified into two groups of acute and chronic infection. It might be classified as systemic or localized based on the organ involvement. It has four different clinical manifestations: Acute infection, asymptomatic carrier state, the classic Whipple’s disease, and localized chronic infection.
Whipple's disease classification based on the duration:
- Whipple's disease may be classified to two groups of systemic and localized infection based on organ involvement.
Whipple's disease classification based on organ involvement:
- Tropheryma whipplei infection may be classified to four groups based on the clinical manifestation:
- Acute infections such as:
- Asymptomatic carrier state
- The classic Whipple’s disease
- Localized involvement of different organs including:
- Blood-culture negative endocarditis
- Adhesive pericarditis
- Myocardial fibrosis
- Retrobulbar neuritis
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Marth, Thomas (2009). "New Insights into Whipple's Disease – A Rare Intestinal Inflammatory Disorder". Digestive Diseases. 27 (4): 494–501. doi:10.1159/000233288. ISSN 1421-9875.
- ↑ Schneider, Thomas; Moos, Verena; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Marth, Thomas; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier (2008). "Whipple's disease: new aspects of pathogenesis and treatment". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 8 (3): 179–190. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(08)70042-2. ISSN 1473-3099.
- ↑ Relman, David A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; MacDermott, Richard P.; Falkow, Stanley (1992). "Identification of the Uncultured Bacillus of Whipple's Disease". New England Journal of Medicine. 327 (5): 293–301. doi:10.1056/NEJM199207303270501. ISSN 0028-4793.
- ↑ Street, Sara; Donoghue, Helen D; Neild, GH (1999). "Tropheryma whippelii DNA in saliva of healthy people". The Lancet. 354 (9185): 1178–1179. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)03065-2. ISSN 0140-6736.
- ↑ Ectors N, Geboes K, De Vos R, Heidbuchel H, Rutgeerts P, Desmet V, Vantrappen G (1992). "Whipple's disease: a histological, immunocytochemical and electronmicroscopic study of the immune response in the small intestinal mucosa". Histopathology. 21 (1): 1–12. PMID 1378814.
- ↑ Marth T, Strober W (1996). "Whipple's disease". Semin. Gastrointest. Dis. 7 (1): 41–8. PMID 8903578.