Uveitis causes

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Uveitis Microchapters


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Historical Perspective




Differentiating Uveitis from other Diseases

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Tarek Nafee, M.D. [2]


Common causes of uveitis include seronegative spondyloarthropathy, sarcoidosis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Behçet syndrome, multiple sclerosis, AIDS, syphilis, and tuberculosis.[1][2]


Uveitis may be caused by either systemic inflammatory diseases, localized infectious diseases, or isolated syndromes confined to the eye. No specific diagnosis is made in approximately one-half of cases. However, uveitis is often associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles such as HLA-B27, HLA-A29, HLA-B51, HLA-B8, HLA-DR15, HLA-DR2.[1][2][3]

Systemic inflammatory disorders causing uveitis

Systemic autoimmune disorders that can cause uveitis include:[1][2][4]

Infectious disease causes of uveitis

Infectious diseases that can cause uveitis include:[1][2][5]

Isolated eye disorders causing uveitis

Isolated eye disorders that can cause uveitis include:[1][2][6]

Cause by Anatomical Location

The cause of uveitis may vary depending on the anatomical location affected:[1][2]

  • Anterior uveitis may be associated with autoimmune diseases, but most cases occur in healthy people for unapparent reasons. The disorder may affect only one eye. It is most common in young and middle-aged people.
  • Posterior uveitis may develop in people who have an autoimmune disease or who have had a systemic (body-wide) infection. The most common cause of posterior uveitis is infections resulting from toxoplasmosis.[9]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Kawasaki disease, Wegener granulomatosis
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic Vitiligo, Psoriasis
Drug Side Effect Certolizumab pegol, etidronate, fomivirsen sodium, latanoprost, metipranolol, medrysone,nivolumab, pembrolizumab, rifabutin, trametinib, vemurafenib
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease
Genetic Blau syndrome, Granulomatous arthritis of childhood, Incontinentia pigmenti, Synovitis granulomatous with uveitis and cranial neuropathies
Hematologic Lymphoma
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Brucellosis, Cat scratch fever, Epstein-Barr virus, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster, HTLV-1, Lepromatous leprosy, Leptospirosis, Lyme disease, Malaria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ocular bartonellosis, Onchocerciasis, Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, Secondary syphilis, Syphilis, Toxocariasis, Toxoplasma, Toxoplasmosis, Tuberculosis, West nile virus, Whipple disease , AIDS
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Granulomatous arthritis of childhood, Ankylosing spondylitis, Juvenile chronic arthritis, Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Polychondritis, Rheumatoid disease, Still disease, juvenile-onset
Neurologic Tropical spastic paraparesis, Multiple sclerosis
Nutritional / Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Lymphoma
Opthalmologic Acute retinal necrosis syndrome, Alezzandrini syndrome, Birdshot retinochoroidopathy, Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis, Heerfordt-Waldenstroem syndrome, Ocular ischemic syndrome, Pars planitis, Scleritis, Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis, Systemic ophthalmitis, Intraocular foreign body
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Ulcerative colitis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Autoimmune uveitis, Behcet disease, Crohn's disease, Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome, Juvenile chronic arthritis, Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Kawasaki disease, Multiple sclerosis, Polychondritis, Psoriasis, Reiter syndrome, Rheumatoid disease, Sarcoidosis, Still disease, juvenile-onset, Sympathetic ophthalmitis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Intraocular foreign body

Causes in Alphabetical Order


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Guly CM, Forrester JV (2010). "Investigation and management of uveitis". BMJ. 341: c4976. doi:10.1136/bmj.c4976. PMID 20943722.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Rodriguez A, Calonge M, Pedroza-Seres M, Akova YA, Messmer EM, D'Amico DJ; et al. (1996). "Referral patterns of uveitis in a tertiary eye care center". Arch Ophthalmol. 114 (5): 593–9. PMID 8619771.
  3. Przeździecka-Dołyk J, Węgrzyn A, Turno-Kręcicka A, Misiuk-Hojło M (2016). "Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis". Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 64 (2): 127–37. doi:10.1007/s00005-015-0361-y. PMC 4805694. PMID 26438050.
  4. White G."Uveitis." AllAboutVision.com. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  5. White G."Uveitis." AllAboutVision.com. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  6. White G."Uveitis." AllAboutVision.com. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  7. http://www.preventblindness.org/uveitis/what/types.html
  8. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001005.htm
  9. http://www.preventblindness.org/uveitis/what/types.html

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