Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shivani Chaparala M.B.B.S [2] Ahmed Younes M.B.B.CH [3]


Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a blood-borne infection caused by enteric organisms in 70% of cases (mono-microbial origin in 90% of cases). Aerobic gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli account for half of the cases. Gram-positive cocci Streptococcus species in 20% cases and enterococcus accounting for 5% of the cases. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius are less frequent causes. Poly-microbial infection is mostly iatrogenic (more likely associated with abdominal paracentesis) or intra-abdominal source of infection. The cause of SBP is not definitively established, but is believed to involve hematogenous spread of organisms in patients with liver disease and altered portal circulation in adults, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in conjunction with cirrhosis of the liver and portal hypertension.


Common Causes

Less common causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Cardiogenic ascites
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Proton Pump Inhibitors and Beta Adrenergic Antagonists
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Ascites, Chronic liver disease, Cirrhosis , Intrahepatic blood shunting , Portal hypertension
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Infectious Disease Acinetobacter infections, Actinomyces infections , Aerococcus urinae , Aeromonas hydrophila, Arcanobacterium haemolyticum , Bacteroides fragilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Brucella infection, Candida infection, Citrobacter freundii, Coccidioides immitis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Defective ascites bactericidal activity, Enterococcus casseliflavus , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus gallinarum , Enterococcus hirae , Escherichia coli , Gemella morbilorum , Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Leclercia adecarboxylata , Leminorella grimontii , Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis , Ochrobactrum anthropi , Plesiomonas shigelloides, Proteus inections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella paratyphi a , Salmonella typhimurium , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus salivarius , Vibrio vulnificus, Viridans group streptococci,and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Malnutrition
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Malignant ascites
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity Cirrhosis
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte Nephrotic syndrome
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order