Pulmonary edema epidemiology and demographics
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D.  Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farnaz Khalighinejad, MD 
The prevalence of pulmonary edema was estimated to be 75000-83000 cases per 100,000 individuals among heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. Pulmonary edema commonly affects individuals older than 65 years of age. Males are more commonly affected by pulmonary edema than woman.
Epidemiology and Demographics
- The incidence of neurogenic pulmonary edema is approximately 2000 to 42900 per 100,000 individuals in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
- The incidence of neurogenic pulmonary edema is approximately 20000 per 100,000 individuals in patients with traumatic brain injury.
- The prevalence of pulmonary edema was estimated to be 75000-83000 cases per 100,000 individuals among heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.
- The mortality rate of pulmonary edema is approximately 12000 per 100000 among in-hospital patients.
- The median time from the pulmonary edema until death is approximately 10 days.
- Higher in-hospital mortality rate are associated with left ventricular myocardial function.
- Pulmonary edema commonly affects individuals older than 65 years of age.
- Blacks have the highest risk for heart failure as underlying cause of pulmonary edema.
- Males are more commonly affected by pulmonary edema than woman.
- ↑ Fontes RB, Aguiar PH, Zanetti MV, Andrade F, Mandel M, Teixeira MJ (April 2003). "Acute neurogenic pulmonary edema: case reports and literature review". J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 15 (2): 144–50. PMID 12658001.
- ↑ Solenski NJ, Haley EC, Kassell NF, Kongable G, Germanson T, Truskowski L, Torner JC (June 1995). "Medical complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a report of the multicenter, cooperative aneurysm study. Participants of the Multicenter Cooperative Aneurysm Study". Crit. Care Med. 23 (6): 1007–17. PMID 7774210.
- ↑ Bratton SL, Davis RL (April 1997). "Acute lung injury in isolated traumatic brain injury". Neurosurgery. 40 (4): 707–12, discussion 712. PMID 9092843.
- ↑ Platz E, Jhund PS, Campbell RT, McMurray JJ (September 2015). "Assessment and prevalence of pulmonary oedema in contemporary acute heart failure trials: a systematic review". Eur. J. Heart Fail. 17 (9): 906–16. doi:10.1002/ejhf.321. PMC 4725064. PMID 26230356.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Edoute Y, Roguin A, Behar D, Reisner SA (February 2000). "Prospective evaluation of pulmonary edema". Crit. Care Med. 28 (2): 330–5. PMID 10708162.
- ↑ Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE, Drazner MH, Fonarow GC, Geraci SA, Horwich T, Januzzi JL, Johnson MR, Kasper EK, Levy WC, Masoudi FA, McBride PE, McMurray JJ, Mitchell JE, Peterson PN, Riegel B, Sam F, Stevenson LW, Tang WH, Tsai EJ, Wilkoff BL (October 2013). "2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 62 (16): e147–239. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.019. PMID 23747642.