Hyperlipoproteinemia type 5

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shivani Chaparala M.B.B.S [2]; Venkata Sivakrishna Kumar Pulivarthi M.B.B.S [3]

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To view Hyperlipoproteinemia main page Click here

Synonyms and keywords: : Hyperchylomicronemia, Late-Onset, Hyperchylomicronemia With Hyperprebetalipoproteinemia, Familial mixed hyperlipidemia, Type V hyperlipemia, Hyperlipidemia type V, Type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia, Type 5 hyperlipemia, Type 5 HLP, Type V HLP, Combined fat and carbohydrate Induced hyperlipidemia, Mixed hypertriglyceridemia, Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia.


Type 5 Hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP V) is a rare disorder of lipo-protein metabolism characterized by fasting chylomicronemia and elevated levels of cholesterol in the very low density (VLDL) lipoprotein fraction. The triglyceride(TG) levels are invariably greater than 1000mg/dl thereby increasing the risk of pancreatitis.It has been postulated that HLP V is the result of a defective clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins(VLDLs and Chylomicrons),although lipoprotein lipase is not completely absent. Another suggested mechanism is of VLDL TG's overproduction. Some patients seem to have "Primary" HLP V which usually appears first in adulthood,this phenotype is often associated with secondary factors,almost always Diabetes Mellitus.May be associated with Eruptive Xanthomas and Hyperuricemia. The primary goal of therapy is to reduce the TG level to <500mg/dl for the intent of reducing the risk of pancreatitis.

Historical Perspective

  • In 1967, Dr. Fredrickson applying electrophoresis methods to the separation of lipoproteins developed a classification of lipoprotein disorders.[1]


Classification based on etiology

Although the exact etiology of HLP V remains unclear till date,it has been postulated that its largely due to a combination of genetic and acquired factors.

  • Pattern of inheritance is unclear but is consistent with Autosomal Dominant transmission
  • Not manifested until middle age (17) suggesting a role for environmental, hormonal and genetic abnormalities.
  • Precise genetic patterns have not been determined and it has been suggested that HLP V may be due to a number of different genetic defects involving *APOA5, APOE4, GPIHDLBP1,and Partial lipoprotein deficiency.
  • Although it is important to consider and rule out secondary causes of Hypertrigliceridemia before making familial HTG.


  • Familial HTGemia may be exacerbated by the administration of exogenous TG elevating therapies like estrogen, glucocorticoids, and poorly controlled diabetes.
  • Underlying disorders that lead to alterations in plasma lipid and lipoproteins increase predisposition to premature atherosclerosis associated with marked hypertriglyceridemia leading to pancreatitis and hyper-chlyomicronenia. When secondary and familial forms of HTG coexist, TG removal mechanisms may be saturate and marked HTG with fasting chylomicronemia ensue.

Classification by Severity of Triglycerides

Hypertriglyceridemia may be classified according to the concentration of triglycerides on the lipid profile. More marked elevations are usually seen in cases of hypertriglyceridemia resulting from secondary causes.[2]

❑ Normal triglycerides: <150 mg/dL,
❑ Borderline-high triglycerides: 150-199 mg/dL
❑ High triglycerides: 200-499 mg/dL
❑ Very high triglycerides: >500 mg/dL
To view the ATPIII guidelines for classification of triglyceride levels click here.

Classification by Severity of Mutations

HLP V may be classified according to the severity of the mutation involving the APOA5 gene.[3]
❑ HOMOZYGOUS: APOA5 gene mutation if present in the homozygous state, is expected to cause severe type V hyperlipidemia in patients with no mutations in LPL or APOC2 genes.
❑ HETEROZYGOUS: APOA5 gene mutation if present in the heterozygous state, these mutations predispose to hypertriglyceridemia in combination with other genetic factors or pathological conditions.[4][5]

Pathophysiology [6]

The two main sources of plasma triglycerides (also known as triacylglycerol) are exogenous (i.e., from dietary fat) and carried in chylomicrons, and endogenous (from the liver) and carried in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. In capillaries within fat and muscle tissue, these lipoproteins and chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase into free fatty acids. After a meal, over 90% of the circulating triglycerides originate in the intestine and are secreted in chylomicrons, whereas during periods of fasting, endogenous triglycerides secreted by the liver as VLDL predominate. The increase in plasma of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins results from increased production from the liver and intestine (by means of upregulated synthetic and secretory pathways) or through decreased peripheral catabolism (mainly from reduced lipoprotein lipase activity).

Pathogenesis [7]

The pathogenesis of type V is not fully understood.It was proposed to be as a result of "TWO HITS".FIRST HIT = Genetic Predisposition, SECOND HIT = Exacerbation by secondary factors that worsens lipid levels,often resulting in profound Hyperlipidemia.Although initially described in patients hospitalized because of Alcoholism,uncontrolled diabetes, nephrosis,hypothyroid,dysglobulinemia. The plasma lipoprotein pattern returns to normal if underlying disorder is successfully treated.In some cases however,no underlying cause is found and the subject is considered to have a "PRIMARY" abnormality of LP metabolism.However; VLDL appears to be the most affected lipoprotein fraction in type V and there is three-fold increase in synthesis rate as well as decreased fractional catabolism of VLDL.[8].Molecular basis for Type V HLP is not clearly understood.[9] In patients with type V HLP, the presence of underlying diseases or contributing factors such as Diabetes and alcohol abuse occurs in ~67% of patients and the remaining patients usually show type IV HLP and have hypertriglyceridemia in the family.Transiently impaired LPL activity with no defect in LPL enzyme induced severe hypertriglyceridemia in infants. The transient occurrence of inhibitor(s) for LPL was proposed.[10][9].Although elevation of both Cholesterol and TG has been associated with premature atherosclerosis,no systematic evaluation of a large group of type V subjects for CAD has been presented,also there is no evidence in families of excessive coronary artery disease.Mutations in GPIHBP1, APOA5 were rare but the associated clinical phenotype was severe.The triglycerides in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) along the luminal surface of the capillaries. However, the endothelial cell molecule that facilitates chylomicron processing by LpL has not yet been defined. It has been shown that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons.GPIHBP1-deficient mice exhibit a striking accumulation of chylomicrons in the plasma, even on a low-fat diet, resulting in milky plasma and plasma triglyceride levels as high as 5000 mg/dl. Normally, Gpihbp1 is expressed highly in heart and adipose tissue, the same tissues that express high levels of LpL. In these tissues, GPIHBP1 is located on the luminal face of the capillary endothelium. Expression of GPIHBP1 in cultured cells confers the ability to bind both LpL and chylomicrons. These studies strongly suggest that GPIHBP1 is an important platform for the LpL-mediated processing of chylomicrons in capillaries.


Precise genetic patterns have not been determined for type V HLP and it has been suggested that type V may be due to number of genetic defects. Among them, the apo E and its isoforms may have an important clinical significance in type V HLP and may affect the catabolism of triglyceride rich lipoproteins. The presence of apo E4 allele may be the genetic factor that predisposes to the development of type V due to delayed lipoprotein clearance.APOE is a normal constituent of VLDL and HDL.The primary function is to serve as a ligand for the recognition of LP's to endothelial lipases.APOE is a polymorphic protein coded by 3 common alleles on chromosome 19.3 common alleles of APOE code for 3 isoforms [E2,E3,E4].[12]

Associated Conditions [13]


Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is more complicated and more closely related to acquired environmental factors. It rarely shows familial occurrence, but its inheritance is variable. Therefore, type V HLP is usually considered to be triggered by acquired environmental factors in individuals with some congenital susceptibility to altered triglyceride metabolism (genetic factors). While the involved environmental factors vary, involvement of heavy drinking, type 2 Diabetes, hormonal therapy and medications are frequently observed.[9]

Causes by Pathophysiology

Congenital (Genetic) Factors Secondary causes of Dyslipidemia[14]
  • Familial combined hyperlipidemia(FCHL)
  • Monogenic familial hypertriglyceridemia
  • Heterozygous LPL gene abnormality/ Abonormal expression of the LPL gene
  • Other genetic abnormalities
    • Abnormalities of Apo A-V
    • Abnormalities of Apo E
Due to disordered metabolism or disease Due to drugs
Common Clinical Causes : Increased body fat with adiposopathy, Metabolic syndrome, Insulin resistance, Nutritional content, Limited physical activity, Cigarette smoking, Acute or substantial alcohol consumption, especially in patients with fatty liver, Pregnancy, Anorexia nervosa, Post solid organ transplantation, especially with marked medical stress and use of high dose immunosuppressants   (e.g. corticosteroids).

Endocrine Diseases: Inadequately controlled diabetes mellitus, Untreated hypothyroidism, Lipodystrophy, Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Chronic kidney disease, Nephrotic syndrome.

Liver Disease: Hepatitis with fatty liver, Cholestasis, Biliary cirrhosis, Primary sclerosing cholangitis (cholesterol levels may be mildly increased with low rate of ASCVD; cholesterol levels are decreased with cirrhosis), Narrowed and malformed bile ducts (Alagille syndrome)

Pancreatic Disease: If acute pancreatitis results in insulinopenia, hyperglycemia, and systemic stress, then acute pancreatitis can potentially contribute to hypertriglyceridemia (e.g. triglyceride-induced pancreatitis can potentially worsen triglyceride levels)

Infections: Human immunodeficiency virus infection, especially if treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy

Inflammatory Diseases: Systemic lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis

Storage Diseases: Glycogen storage disease, Gaucher’s disease, Cystine storage disease, Juvenile Tay-Sachs disease, Niemann-Pick disease

Others: Progeria, Idiopathic hypercalcemia, Klinefelter syndrome, Werner’s syndrome, Kawasakis disease, Acute intermittent porphyria.

Hormones or hormone- like agents:

Oral estrogens

some oral contraceptives




Cariometabolic pharmacotherapies:

Nonselective beta- blockers

Thiazide diuretics

Bile acid sequestrants

Recreational drugs:



Immuno-active agents:




Anti-neoplastic agents:



Anti psychotic drugs:




Other pharmacotherapies:


Protease inhibitors


Differentiating HLP type 5 from other conditions associated with raised triglycerides

HLP type 5 must be differentiated from other diseases that cause abnormal increase in triglycerides in the blood.

Epidemiology and Demographics


It is difficult to accurately estimate the prevalence of HLP V in the general population,although the estimated incidence being <1/1,000,000. but a survey of about 40,000 people by the Lipid Research Clinic reported the frequency of individuals with a plasma TG level of 2,000 mg/dl or higher to be about 0.018%.


Average triglyceride levels in type V hyperlipoproteinemia were lower for women than for men before age 50.[16]


  • TG levels increase with increasing age
  • Male relatives had substantially higher average TG levels than women,except for the age group 50-59.
  • Average triglyceride levels in type V hyperlipoproteinemia were lower for women than for men before age 50.
  • For all ages combined 38/88 M and 19/93 F were considered Hypertriglyceridemic.


In Western population, LPL gene abnormalities were observed in 10% of patients with type V HLP.

Risk Factors


  • Because of clustering of susceptibility alleles and secondary factors in families, biochemical screening and counselling for family members is essential, but routine genetic testing is not warranted
  • Severe and very severe hypertriglyceridemia increase the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore,according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) III guideline committee's recommendations, screening adults for hypertriglyceridemia as part of a lipid panel at least every 5 yr.

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Natural History [17]

Mixed hyperlipidemia—a common disorder that becomes more prevalent with increasing age.A history of acute pancreatitis was observed in about 17% of the patients, demonstrating that hyperlipidemia is frequently complicated by pancreatitis also in Japanese, in whom the fat intake is lower than in Western people, and stressing the importance of its prevention and management.

  • Restriction of dietary fat eliminates chylomicrons and the lipoprotein panel changes to type 4 hyperlipoproteinemia.
  • Often,the treatment of secondary factors contributing to HLP V (diet,obesity,glucose intolerance,alcohol,estrogen) converts type 5 to type 4 thereby modifying the glyceridemia ,the major manifestation of this disorder and reducing the risk of pancreatitis.


 In patients with very high triglyceride levels and acute triglyceride-induced pancreatitis with hyperchylomicronemia, initial management may include hospitalization and fasting. 
Especially if glucose levels are elevated, then insulin therapy may also help reduce triglyceride levels (such as intravenous insulin in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus). However, especially among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the acute effect on chylomicron production may be absent, with the main potential benefit being a reduction in free fatty acid flux, and reduced very low density lipoprotein hepatic secretion. When and where available, therapeutic plasma exchange and double-filtration may provide clinical benefit. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for severe cases where fasting is prolonged, and enteral nutrition is not feasible or inadequate because of persistent gastrointestinal dysfunction. Once active symptoms of pancreatitis have subsided (ie, no nausea and vomiting, resolution of abdominal pain, no requirements for pain medication, and evidence of bowel motility such as bowel movements or active bowel sounds), then a clear liquid diet may be initiated, advancing to a whole food, low fat diet (6-15% of energy consumption). Another nutritional approach is a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and medium chain triglycerides. When patients with very high triglycerides are managed as an outpatient, then after managing potential secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia (and other potential causes of pancreatitis), and after implementation of very low fat, limited refined carbohydrate diet, and (when possible), an increase in physical activity, then fasting triglycerides can be monitored every 3-4 days, with an expectation that chylomicron triglycerides may decrease by 20-25% daily. Once pancreatitis is resolved and triglycerides are reduced to less than 1000 mg/dL, then non-saturated fats and non trans fats can be gradually increased to 25%, and then 35% of caloric intake. Beyond treatment of triglyceride-induced acute pancreatitis, appropriate nutritional intervention is also an important strategy for treating dyslipidemia and reducing ASCVD risk.


The prognosis is uncertain.Patients with HLP V are at an extremely high risk of developing Pancreatitis ( 17%). If the disease is inadequately managed, the prognosis is poor, especially if other risk factors are present. If the patient complies with lipid-lowering therapy, dietary modification, and lifestyle modification and if therapy is successful, outcome is improved significantly. Increased fat intake may cause recurrent bouts of illness possibly leading to pseudocyst formation,hemorrhage and death


Diagnosis of lipid genetic abnormalities is usually by :

  • Clinical presentation
  • History (including age of onset of symptoms in the patient and family members)
  • Physical findings (Eruptive Xanthomas)
  • Lab evaluation (Lipid levels and Apolipoprotein assays).

Diagnosis of more rare dysfunctions can sometimes be assisted by genetic or functional testing (Gene sequencing,LPL activity)

Diagnostic Criteria

Definitely diagnosed if both I and II are fulfilled.
Diagnostic criteria to confirm HLP V include:

  1. TG > 250 mg/dl
  2. CM were present in plasma after an overnight stand at 4°C
  3. Floating beta (type 3) abnormality was absent
  4. PHLA(post heparin lipolytic activity) was present by electrophoretic strip.

Type 4 satisfies 1,3,4 except for CM(2)

  • Fasting chylomicronemia can be diagnosed by confirming the presence of chylomicrons and excess VLDL on agarose gel electrophoresis or ultracentrifugal analysis. A simple technique is to refrigerate plasma overnight and examine the specimen for a creamy supernatant from chylomicrons and a turbid VLDL-rich infranatant.This latter finding of a turbid infranatant is not seen in patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia, in which only chylomicrons accumulate and the infranatant is clear.
  • Also,the identification of other primary relatives with dyslipidemias is useful in making the diagnosis.

History and Symptoms

HTGemia is usually asymptomatic until TG levels are greater than 1000-2000 mg/dl. Signs and symptoms may include the following.

  • GI : Pain in the mid-epigastric, chest, or back regions; nausea, vomiting.
  • Respiratory: Dyspnea
  • Dermatologic: Xanthomas xanthomas
  • Ophthalmologic: Lipemia Retinalis[18]
  • Neurological:Recent memory loss,coma.[19]

Always enquire about history of :

Physical Examination

Physical examination of patients with HLP V is usually normal.

  • General examination should include documentation of:
      • Body weight,height,blood pressure.

The additional findings may be subjective and include:

  • ABDOMEN: Hepatosplenomegaly.
  • SKIN:Eruptive Xanthomas: Eruptive xanthomas (see the images below) are sometimes found when sustained elevated triglycerides are well above 1000 mg/dL. These are 1- to 3-mm yellow papules on an erythematous base that are most prominent on the back, buttocks, chest, and proximal extremities. The lesions are caused by accumulations of chylomicrons within macrophages and disappear gradually when triglycerides are kept below 1000 mg/dL.
  • EYE : Lipemia Retinals : Triglyceride levels of 4000 mg/dL or higher may cause lipemia retinalis, in which funduscopic examination reveals retinal blood vessels (and occasionally the retina) that have a pale pink, milky appearance.The ocular changes are usually not seen until the triglyceride level reaches at least 2000 mg/dL in the early stages; they are best observed in the peripheral fundus. The vessels initially appear salmon-pink, but when the triglyceride level rises further, they become whitish. These changes, which begin in the periphery, progress toward the posterior pole as the triglyceride level rises. In severe cases, the vessels are creamy white, and differentiating the arteries from the veins is difficult. The findings can fluctuate widely from day to day, depending on the triglyceride level.
  • NEUROLOGICAL: Memory loss, dementia, and depression have been reported in patients with the chylomicronemia syndrome.

Laboratory Findings

  • Laboratory findings consistent with Type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia include the following:-
Laboratory finding
Phenotype Lipoprotein(s)


Serum total










Fat tolerance Electrophoresis Cholesterol/TG ratio LDL/HDL ratio
Hyperlipoproteinemia type 5 Chylomicrons and VLDL ↑↑ ↓↓↓ ↑↑↑ Creamy top and Turbid bottom Impaired May be abnormal Markedly abnormal Pre-beta band ↑↑,beta and alpha ↓ >0.15 and <0.6

-Measurement of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels after an overnight fast.

  • Elevated triglycerides are determined by direct laboratory analysis of serum or plasma,however determining which lipoprotein abnormality is the cause of hypertriglyceridemia is less straightforward.
  • Lipoprotein Electrophoresis
  • Lipoprotein quantification

Tests to rule out secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia include:

-If the diagnosis of eruptive xanthomas is in doubt, obtaining a biopsy of the suspicious lesions will reveal accumulations of fat (not cholesterol). -The only procedure that reliably distinguishes between a mixed hyperlipoproteinemia (increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides) and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (increased IDL) is beta quantification (lipoprotein electrophoresis)
Chylomicron Determination

  • If the triglyceride levels are greater than 1000 mg/dL and the presence of chylomicrons must be confirmed, the simplest and most cost-effective test involves overnight refrigeration of an upright tube of plasma or serum. If a creamy supernatant is seen the next day, chylomicrons are present. If the infranatant is cloudy, high levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) are present (type V hyperlipidemia)

Imaging Findings

Generally there are no specific radiological findings associated with HLP V.
However in some cases Abdominal X-ray shows Pancreatic Calcification.[20]

Other Diagnostic Studies

Genetic analysis based on HTG as a trait is not adequate.
There are no other diagnostic studies associated with the diagnosis of HLP V.

Recommendations for Hypertriglyceridemia [21]

  • Individuals found to have any elevation of fasting triglycerides should be evaluated for secondary causes of hyperlipidemia including endocrine conditions and medications. Treatment should be focused on such secondary causes.
  • Patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia should be assessed for other cardiovascular risk factors, such as central obesity, hypertension, abnormalities of glucose metabolism, and liver dysfunction.
  • Evaluation of patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia for family history of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease to assess genetic causes and future cardiovascular risk.


The evaluation and treatment decisions for HLP V should be based on patient-centered and individual circumstances. Lifestyle therapies, such as appropriate nutrition and physical activity, are important elements of ASCVD risk reduction, with or without lipid-altering drug therapy. For patients in whom lipid-altering drug therapy is indicated, statin treatment is the primary pharmacologic modality for reducing ASCVD risk.

Clinical algorithm for screening and management of elevated TG[22]


Medical Therapy [23]

When the triglyceride concentration is very high (≥500 mg/dL, and especially if ≥1000 mg/dL), the primary goal of therapy is to reduce the triglyceride level to <500 mg/dL for the intent of reducing the risk of pancreatitis.

Triglyceride concentration First line of therapy
≥1000mg/dl Triglyceride lowering agents such as
❑ Fibric acids
❑ High-dose [2 to 4 g/d] long-chain omega-3 fatty acids
❑ Nicotinic acid
500-999mg/dl ❑ Triglyceride lowering agents,
❑ Statins
200-499mg/dl Statin will generally be first-line drug therapy.If maximum tolerated statin therapy does not lower non-HDL-C below goal levels in patients with triglycerides 200 to 499 mg/dL, adding an agent that primarily lowers triglycerides may help to achieve atherogenic cholesterol goals.

When triglycerides are between 200 and 499mg/dL, the primary targets of lipid therapy are non–HDL-C and LDL-C for the purpose of reducing ASCVD risk.

Lipid treatment goals to reduce ASCVD risk[22]
Risk of ASCVD Indication for drug therapy Goal of drug therapy
Low ASCVD risk Non HDL- C* level ≥190mg/dl
LDL-C level ≥160mg/dl
Non HDL- C level <130mg/dl
LDL-C level <100mg/dl
Moderate ASCVD risk Non HDL- C* level ≥160mg/dl
LDL-C level ≥130mg/dl
Non HDL- C level <130mg/dl
LDL-C level <100mg/dl
High ASCVD risk Non HDL- C level ≥130mg/dl
LDL-C level ≥100mg/dl
Non HDL- C level <130mg/dl
LDL-C level <100mg/dl
Very high ASCVD risk Non HDL- C level ≥100mg/dl
LDL-C level ≥70mg/dl
Non HDL- C level <100mg/dl
LDL-C level <70mg/dl

Non–HDL-C comprises the cholesterol carried by all atherogenic particles, including LDL, intermediatedensity lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and VLDL remnants, chylomicron remnants, and lipoprotein.[14]


The effect of bariatric surgery on lipid levels is variable and dependent upon the type of bariatric surgical procedure (e.g., gastric bypass, gastric sleeve, adjustable gastric banding).Gastric bypass procedures generally produce greater improvements in lipid and other metabolic parameters because of greater reductions in body fat, alterations in gut and other hormones, and improvements in inflammatory factors.[14]Bariatric surgery significantly improved multiple metabolic parameters, and reduced overall mortality.Regarding lipids, compared with conventional therapy, bariatric surgery significantly reduced the incidence of hypertriglyceridemia (defined as ≥150 mg/dL) and the incidence of low HDL-C (defined as <39 mg/dL) but no significant reduction in hypercholesterolemia (defined as ≥200 mg/dL).[24]

Primary Prevention

As type 5 HLP is a genetic disease there is no primary prevention before the presentation. Although, there is a possibility to reduce its incidence by controlling the environmental factors, especially in those with a family history of dyslipidemia.

Secondary Prevention

  • Lifestyle interventions are a key to reduce triglycerides that includes[22]
    • weight loss if overweight or obese
    • physical activity (≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate or higher intensity activity)
  • Restriction of alcohol
  • Restriction of sugar/refined carbohydrate intakes
  • For patients with very high TG level (≥500 mg/dL),chylomicronemia will generally be present. For such patients, a low-fat diet (,15% of energy) may be helpful to reduce entry of new chylomicron particles into the circulation.[22]
  • For patients with triglycerides <500 mg/dL, partial replacement of dietary carbohydrate (especially sugars and other refined carbohydrates) with a combination of unsaturated fats and proteins may help to reduce the triglyceride and non-HDL-C concentrations.


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  7. Hegele, Robert A. (2016). "Multidimensional regulation of lipoprotein lipase: impact on biochemical and cardiovascular phenotypes: TABLE 1". Journal of Lipid Research. 57 (9): 1601–1607. doi:10.1194/jlr.C070946. ISSN 0022-2275.
  8. Kesaniemi, Y. Antero (1984). "Dual Defect in Metabolism of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglycerides". JAMA. 251 (19): 2542. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03340430040026. ISSN 0098-7484.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Gotoda T, Shirai K, Ohta T, Kobayashi J, Yokoyama S, Oikawa S et al. (2012) Diagnosis and management of type I and type V hyperlipoproteinemia. J Atheroscler Thromb 19 (1):1-12. PMID: 22129523
  10. Nagasaka H, Kikuta H, Chiba H, Murano T, Harashima H, Ohtake A; et al. (2003). "Two cases with transient lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity impairment: evidence for the possible involvement of an LPL inhibitor". Eur J Pediatr. 162 (3): 132–8. doi:10.1007/s00431-002-1133-3. PMID 12655414.
  11. Hegele, R. A.; Ban, M. R.; Hsueh, N.; Kennedy, B. A.; Cao, H.; Zou, G. Y.; Anand, S.; Yusuf, S.; Huff, M. W.; Wang, J. (2009). "A polygenic basis for four classical Fredrickson hyperlipoproteinemia phenotypes that are characterized by hypertriglyceridemia". Human Molecular Genetics. 18 (21): 4189–4194. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp361. ISSN 0964-6906.
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