Listeriosis differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: João André Alves Silva, M.D. [2]; Yazan Daaboul, M.D.


Listeriosis is associated with more than one clinical syndrome. It must be differentiated from other infections that cause fever and systemic/localized symptoms (either CNS disease, gastroenteritis, genitourinary disease, endocarditis, or bacteremia), such as E. coli, Neisseria spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Serratia spp., or Haemophilus spp., mononucleosis, or tuberculosis. Listeria monocytogenes must also be differentiated from other organisms that are morphologically similar, such as pneumococci, diphtheroids, or Haemophilus spp. Differential diagnosis of listeriosis additionally includes hematologic malignancies (such as leukemia or lymphoma), thyroid disease, drug fever, vasculitides, or rheumatologic diseases.

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of listeriosis includes the following:


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