Histoplasmosis risk factors

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Histoplasmosis Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Histoplasmosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics


Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Chest X Ray


Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Case Studies

Case #1

Histoplasmosis risk factors On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Histoplasmosis risk factors

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Histoplasmosis risk factors

CDC on Histoplasmosis risk factors

Histoplasmosis risk factors in the news

Blogs on Histoplasmosis risk factors

Directions to Hospitals Treating Histoplasmosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Histoplasmosis risk factors

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aravind Kuchkuntla, M.B.B.S[2]


Risk factors for histoplasmosis infection include living in or traveling to the Central or Eastern United States. Patients with immunosupression, hematological malignancies, immunosuppressive therapy and infants are at a higher risk of developing disseminated histoplasmosis infection.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for pulmonary histoplasmosis include:

  • Living in or traveling to the Central or Eastern United States.
  • Activities such as spelunking, mining, construction, excavation, demolition, roofing, chimney cleaning, farming, gardening, and installing heating and air-conditioning systems.
  • Activities that expose people to areas where bats live and birds roost also increase risk. Exposure to soil or particles contaminated with droppings of chickens, bats, or blackbirds is the main mode of transmission.[1]

Risk factors for severe acute disease or disseminated disease include:


  1. Chiller, TM. Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel. Histoplasmosis. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2016/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/histoplasmosis. Accessed February 2, 2016.
  2. Wheat LJ, Azar MM, Bahr NC, Spec A, Relich RF, Hage C (2016). "Histoplasmosis". Infect Dis Clin North Am. 30 (1): 207–27. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2015.10.009. PMID 26897068.
  3. Natarajan M, Swierzbinski MJ, Maxwell S, Zelazny AM, Fahle GA, Quezado M; et al. (2017). "Pulmonary Histoplasma Infection After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Case Report and Review of the Literature". Open Forum Infect Dis. 4 (2): ofx041. doi:10.1093/ofid/ofx041. PMC 5407209. PMID 28470019.