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Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic locus that contains this gene.[1] The protein encoded by this gene is one of two proteins that are required to form the DQ heterodimer, a cell surface receptor essential to the function of the immune system.


HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages).[1]

Gene structure and polymorphisms

The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and it contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular protein domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain, and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule, both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation.[1][2]

Disease association


Several alleles of HLA-DQB1 are associated with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.[3][4][5] The locus also has the genetic name IDDM1 as it is the highest genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Again the DQB1*0201 and DQB1*0302 alleles, particularly the phenotype DQB1*0201/*0302 has a high risk of late onset type 1 diabetes. The risk is partially shared with the HLA-DR locus (DR3 and DR4 serotypes).

Celiac disease

Celiac1 is a genetic name for DQB1, the HLA DQB1*0201, *0202, and *0302 encode genes that mediate the autoimmune coeliac disease. Homozygotes of DQB1*0201 have a higher risk of developing the celiac disease, relative to any other genetic locus.[6]

Multiple sclerosis

Certain HLA-DQB1 alleles are also linked to a modest increased risk of multiple sclerosis.[7][8]


Other HLA-DQB1 alleles are associated with a predisposition to narcolepsy,[9] specifically HLA-DQB1*0602, which is carried by over 90% of patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy.[10]


HLA-DQB1 alleles
Serotype DQB1 allele
DQ2 *0201
DQ4 *0401
DQ5 *0501
DQ6 *0601
DQ7 *0301
DQ8 *0302
DQ9 *0303

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1".
  2. Lau M, Terasaki PI, Park MS (1994). "International Cell Exchange, 1994". Clinical Transplants: 467–88. PMID 7547576.
  3. Todd JA (April 1990). "Genetic control of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes". Immunology Today. 11 (4): 122–9. doi:10.1016/0167-5699(90)90049-F. PMID 2187469.
  4. Todd JA (March 1997). "Genetics of type 1 diabetes". Pathologie-Biologie. 45 (3): 219–27. PMID 9296067.
  5. Redondo MJ, Fain PR, Eisenbarth GS (2001). "Genetics of type 1A diabetes". Recent Progress in Hormone Research. 56: 69–89. doi:10.1210/rp.56.1.69. PMID 11237226.
  6. Murray JA, Moore SB, Van Dyke CT, Lahr BD, Dierkhising RA, Zinsmeister AR, Melton LJ, Kroning CM, El-Yousseff M, Czaja AJ (December 2007). "HLA DQ gene dosage and risk and severity of celiac disease". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 5 (12): 1406–12. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2007.08.013. PMC 2175211. PMID 17919990.
  7. Dyment DA, Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC, Sadnovich AD (1997). "Genetics of multiple sclerosis". Human Molecular Genetics. 6 (10): 1693–8. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.10.1693. PMID 9300661.
  8. Schmidt H, Williamson D, Ashley-Koch A (May 2007). "HLA-DR15 haplotype and multiple sclerosis: a HuGE review". American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (10): 1097–109. doi:10.1093/aje/kwk118. PMID 17329717.
  9. Kadotani H, Faraco J, Mignot E (May 1998). "Genetic studies in the sleep disorder narcolepsy". Genome Research. 8 (5): 427–34. doi:10.1101/gr.8.5.427. PMID 9582188.
  10. "Narcolepsy Research - FAQs". Retrieved 3 January 2014.