Jump to navigation Jump to search
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes


WikiDoc Resources for Firmicutes


Most recent articles on Firmicutes

Most cited articles on Firmicutes

Review articles on Firmicutes

Articles on Firmicutes in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Firmicutes

Images of Firmicutes

Photos of Firmicutes

Podcasts & MP3s on Firmicutes

Videos on Firmicutes

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Firmicutes

Bandolier on Firmicutes

TRIP on Firmicutes

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Firmicutes at Clinical

Trial results on Firmicutes

Clinical Trials on Firmicutes at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Firmicutes

NICE Guidance on Firmicutes


FDA on Firmicutes

CDC on Firmicutes


Books on Firmicutes


Firmicutes in the news

Be alerted to news on Firmicutes

News trends on Firmicutes


Blogs on Firmicutes


Definitions of Firmicutes

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Firmicutes

Discussion groups on Firmicutes

Patient Handouts on Firmicutes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Firmicutes

Risk calculators and risk factors for Firmicutes

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Firmicutes

Causes & Risk Factors for Firmicutes

Diagnostic studies for Firmicutes

Treatment of Firmicutes

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Firmicutes


Firmicutes en Espanol

Firmicutes en Francais


Firmicutes in the Marketplace

Patents on Firmicutes

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Firmicutes

The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, the Mollicutes or mycoplasmas, lack cell walls altogether and so do not respond to Gram staining, but still lack the second membrane found in other Gram-negative forms. Others, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas, and Zymophilus have a porous pseudo-outer-membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative. Originally the Firmicutes were taken to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but more recently they tend to be restricted to a core group of related forms, called the low G+C group in contrast to the Actinobacteria. They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-shaped forms.

Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and some notable pathogens. Those in one family, the heliobacteria, produce energy through photosynthesis. Firmicutes play an important role in beer, wine, and cider spoilage.

There is currently no way of detecting a bacteria as belonging to Firmicutes as the phylum is highly diverse in phenotypic characteristics due to promiscusious plasmid exchange across species and genera of this phyla.

The division Firmicutes as part of the gut flora has been shown to be involved in energy resorption and obesity. [1]


The group is typically divided into the Clostridia, which are anaerobic, the Bacilli, which are obligate or facultative aerobes, and the Mollicutes. On phylogenetic trees the first two groups show up as paraphyletic or polyphyletic, as do their main genera, Clostridium and Bacillus. It is likely these groups will undergo revision.


While there are currently more than 274 genera within the Firmicutes phylum, Notable genera of Firmicutes include:

Bacilli, order Bacillales

Bacilli, order Lactobacillales


  • Acetobacterium
  • Clostridium
  • Eubacterium
  • Heliobacterium
  • Heliospirillum
  • Sporomusa



  1. Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature. 2006 Dec 21;444(7122):1022-3.

de:Firmicutes he:Firmicutes lt:Firmicutes nl:Firmicutes no:Firmicutes uk:Firmicutes

Template:WikiDoc Sources