Collagen, type X, alpha 1

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Collagen alpha-1(X) chain is a protein that in humans is a member of the collagen family encoded by the COL10A1 gene.[1][2]

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type X collagen, a short chain collagen expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Unlike type VIII collagen, the other short chain collagen, type X collagen is a homotrimer. Type X collagen has a short triple helical collagen domain flanked by the N-terminal NC2 and the C-terminal NC1 domains. The C-terminal NC1 domain has complement C1q-like structure. Collagen X forms hexamer complexes through the association of NC1 regions[3]. Mutations in this gene are associated with Schmid type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (SMCD) and Japanese type spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMD).[2]

DDR2 is a collagen receptor for it.[4]

Recent studies into the early detection of colon cancer have identified COL10A1 protein levels in serum as a potential diagnostic biomarker candidate to detect both adenoma lesions and tumor.[5]

Collagen alpha-1(X) undergoes degradation in the active growth plate releasing an intact NC1 region with a small amount of collagenous region attached. This degradation byproduct has been deemed CXM and has potential to be a useful biomarker to assess real time growth velocity in children and fracture healing in adults [6].


  1. Apte S, Mattei MG, Olsen BR (Jul 1991). "Cloning of human alpha 1(X) collagen DNA and localization of the COL10A1 gene to the q21-q22 region of human chromosome 6". FEBS Lett. 282 (2): 393–6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80521-4. PMID 2037056.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Entrez Gene: COL10A1 collagen, type X, alpha 1(Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia)".
  3. Kwan et al. 2005
  4. Leitinger B, Kwan AP (August 2006). "The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen". Matrix Biol. 25 (6): 355–64. doi:10.1016/j.matbio.2006.05.006. PMID 16806867.
  5. Solé X, Crous-Bou M, Cordero D, Olivares D, Guinó E, Sanz-Pamplona R, Rodriguez-Moranta F, Sanjuan X, de Oca J, Salazar R, Moreno V (September 2014). "Discovery and validation of new potential biomarkers for early detection of colon cancer". PLoS ONE. 9: e106748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106748. PMC 4162553. PMID 25215506.

Further reading