Carcinoid syndrome other imaging findings

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Parminder Dhingra, M.D. [2]


Other imaging studies for carcinoid tumor include somatostatin scintigraphy with 111Indium-octreotide, bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTcMDP), 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, capsule endoscopy (CE), enteroscopy, and angiography.

Other Imaging Findings

Other imaging modalities for gastrointestinal carcinoids include the use of:[1]

Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy

Bone Scintigraphy

Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS)

Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography


MRI angiography has replaced angiography to a large extent. However, selective angiography may be useful to:


  1. Diagnostics: Biochemical Markers, Imaging, and Approach . National Cancer Institute. Accessed on September 23, 2015
  2. Savelli, Giordano; Lucignani, Giovanni; Seregni, Ettore; Marchian??, Alfonso; Serafini, Gianluca; Aliberti, Gianluca; Villano, Carlo; Maccauro, Marco; Bombardieri, Emilio (2004). "Feasibility of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in the detection of occult primary gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours". Nuclear Medicine Communications. 25 (5): 445–449. doi:10.1097/00006231-200405000-00004. ISSN 0143-3636.
  3. Hashemi SH, Benjegård SA, Ahlman H, Wängberg B, Forssell-Aronsson E, Billig H, Nilsson O (May 2003). "111In-labelled octreotide binding by the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 in neuroendocrine tumours". Br J Surg. 90 (5): 549–54. doi:10.1002/bjs.4069. PMID 12734860.
  4. Zuetenhorst JM, Hoefnageli CA, Boot H, Valdés Olmos RA, Taal BG (August 2002). "Evaluation of (111)In-pentetreotide, (131)I-MIBG and bone scintigraphy in the detection and clinical management of bone metastases in carcinoid disease". Nucl Med Commun. 23 (8): 735–41. PMID 12124478.
  5. Orlefors H, Sundin A, Garske U, Juhlin C, Oberg K, Skogseid B, Langstrom B, Bergstrom M, Eriksson B (June 2005). "Whole-body (11)C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography as a universal imaging technique for neuroendocrine tumors: comparison with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and computed tomography". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90 (6): 3392–400. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1938. PMID 15755858.

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