Bornholm disease secondary prevention

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Arooj Naz, M.B.B.S


Secondary prevention occurs once the disease has developed and aims to prevent progression and development of further complications. Viral meningitis can be prevented by strict isolation, frequent hand washing and appropriate hand hygiene especially after using the bathroom. The development of orchitis may be prevented by surgical correction of underlying UTI's. Hepatitis is avoidable by the use of vaccines and safe eating habits. Pericarditis can be prevented by the concomitant use of aspirin and colchicine. Respiratory distress can be prevented by controlling various properties, including the tidal volume, PEEP, FiO2, and reducing the risk of aspiration by elevating the head end of bed and maintaining oral hygiene.

Secondary prevention

Prevention of complications includes:

  • Acute viral meningitis: strict isolation, frequent hand washing and appropriate hand hygiene especially after using the bathroom[1]
  • Orchitis: surgical correction of underlying UTI's in eligible patients[2]
  • Tidal volume between 6 and 8 mL/kg of body weight
  • Plateau pressure < 30 cm H2O, PEEP ≥ 5 cm H2O
  • Minimize FiO2 (levels >60% lead are associated with oxygen toxicity)
  • Reduce the risk of aspiration (elevate head end of bed, maintain oral hygiene)


  1. "StatPearls". 2022. PMID 32491344 Check |pmid= value (help).
  2. "StatPearls". 2022. PMID 31985958.
  3. "StatPearls". 2022. PMID 32119436 Check |pmid= value (help).
  4. Markel G, Imazio M, Brucato A, Adler Y (2013). "Prevention of recurrent pericarditis with colchicine in 2012". Clin Cardiol. 36 (3): 125–8. doi:10.1002/clc.22098. PMC 6649517 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 23404655.
  5. Beitler JR, Schoenfeld DA, Thompson BT (2014). "Preventing ARDS: progress, promise, and pitfalls". Chest. 146 (4): 1102–1113. doi:10.1378/chest.14-0555. PMC 4188145. PMID 25288000.

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