Bornholm disease historical perspective

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Bornholm disease Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Differentiating Bornholm disease from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Bornholm disease historical perspective On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Bornholm disease historical perspective

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Bornholm disease historical perspective

CDC on Bornholm disease historical perspective

Bornholm disease historical perspective in the news

Blogs on Bornholm disease historical perspective

Directions to Hospitals Treating Bornholm disease

Risk calculators and risk factors for Bornholm disease historical perspective

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Arooj Naz, M.B.B.S


Bornholm disease is named after the Danish island Bornholm where early cases occurred. Initially, the underlying cause of cases could not be identified but, in 1949, the Coxsackie virus was identified in many patients.

Historical Perspective

  • In 1872, Daae-Finsen reported an epidemic of "acute muscular rheumatism" occurring in a community called Bamble, giving rise to the name "Bamble disease" in Norway.
  • Subsequent reports, published only in Norwegian, referred to the disease by this name.
  • In 1933, Ejnar Sylvest gave a doctoral thesis describing a Danish outbreak of this disease on Bornholm Island entitled, "Bornholm disease-myalgia epidemica", and this name has persisted.
  • In many early cases of the disease, there was no identifiable pathogen associated with it.
  • It was in 1949 when the cases were thought to have been caused by the Coxsackie virus, particularly Coxsackievirus B3 and Coxsackievirus A9 strains, and, less frequently, an association with echovirus types 1, 6, 8, 9 and 19.
  • Upon further investigation, attack rates were found to be higher amongst close contacts and family members, this may be attributable to viruses entering via the pharynx, proliferating in the lymphatic tissues and progressing to the muscles via the bloodstream.[1]
  • Clinically, patients often present with vague chest pain.[2] Some notable outbreaks include Singapore (1974)[3] and Toronto (1958-1959).[4]


  1. Lal A, Akhtar J, Isaac S, Mishra AK, Khan MS, Noreldin M; et al. (2018). "Unusual cause of chest pain, Bornholm disease, a forgotten entity; case report and review of literature". Respir Med Case Rep. 25: 270–273. doi:10.1016/j.rmcr.2018.10.005. PMC 6197799. PMID 30364740.
  2. GIBINSKI K, MAKOWER H, SKURSKA Z, BARA B, SYPULOWA A (1960). "Bornholm disease in Upper Silesia". Bull World Health Organ. 22: 421–9. PMC 2555321. PMID 13827939.
  3. Chong AY, Lee LH, Wong HB (1975). "Epidemic pleurodynia (Bornholm disease) outbreak in Singapore. *A clinical and virological study". Trop Geogr Med. 27 (2): 151–9. PMID 1179480. line feed character in |title= at position 64 (help)
  4. RYDER DE, DOANE FW, ZBITNEW A, RHODES AJ (1959). "Report of an outbreak of Bornholm disease, with isolation of Coxsackie B5 virus: Toronto, 1958". Can J Public Health. 50 (7): 265–9. PMID 13662912.

Template:WH Template:WS