Antiphospholipid syndrome risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Feham Tariq, MD [2]


The most common risk factors of antiphospholipid syndrome risk factors are history of autoimmune diseases like SLE, sjogren's syndrome, infections- cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B-19, hepatitis C virus, lyme's disease, syphilis, E.coli, leptospirosis, medications such as hydralazine, quinidine, phenytoin, and amoxicillin, family history- antiphospholipid syndrome is common in patients with a family history of antiphospholipid syndrome.

Risk Factors

The risk factors associated with antiphospholipid syndrome(APS) are as follows:[1][2][3][4][5]

Common risk factors

Less common risk factors:


  1. Ruiz-Irastorza G, Crowther M, Branch W, Khamashta MA (October 2010). "Antiphospholipid syndrome". Lancet. 376 (9751): 1498–509. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60709-X. PMID 20822807.
  2. Willis R, Harris EN, Pierangeli SS (June 2012). "Pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome". Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 38 (4): 305–21. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1311827. PMID 22510982.
  3. Gris JC, Brenner B (November 2013). "Antiphospholipid antibodies: neuropsychiatric presentations". Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 39 (8): 935–42. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1357488. PMID 24129681.
  4. Koike T (October 2014). "My contribution, my dream - a look at the future of APS". Lupus. 23 (12): 1332–4. doi:10.1177/0961203314534306. PMID 25228741.
  5. Sciascia S, Cuadrado MJ, Khamashta M, Roccatello D (May 2014). "Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome". Nat Rev Nephrol. 10 (5): 279–89. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2014.38. PMID 24642799.