Antiphospholipid syndrome causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Feham Tariq, MD [2]


Antiphospholipid syndrome can occur idiopathic or due to autoimmune diseases, certain drugs, infections and malignancies.


Antiphospholipid syndrome can occur idiopathic or due to autoimmune diseases, certain drugs, infections and malignancies.

The causes of secondary antiphospholipid syndrome are as follows:

More common causes
Autoimmune diseases Infections Malignancy
  • Systemic lupus erythmatosus(SLE)
Bacterial infections: Tumors of the following organs can cause APS:
  • Lung
  • Colon
  • Breast
  • Cervix
  • Ovary


Less Common causes
Viral infections:
  • Hepatitis A,B and C
  • HIV[4]
  • Ebstein Barr virus
  • Adenovirus
  • Rubella
  • Parvovirus
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Varicella Zoster virus

Parasitic infections:

  • Visceral leischmaniasis
  • Pneumocysitis jirovecci
  • Malaria


  1. McNeil HP, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA (1991). "Immunology and clinical importance of antiphospholipid antibodies". Adv Immunol. 49: 193–280. PMID 1853785.
  2. Safa O, Crippa L, Della Valle P, Sabbadini MG, Viganò D'Angelo S, D'Angelo A (1999). "IgG reactivity to phospholipid-bound beta(2)-glycoprotein I is the main determinant of the fraction of lupus anticoagulant activity quenched by addition of hexagonal (II) phase phospholipid in patients with the clinical suspicion of antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome". Haematologica. 84 (9): 829–38. PMID 10477458.
  3. Triplett DA (1998). "Many faces of lupus anticoagulants". Lupus. 7 Suppl 2: S18–22. PMID 9814666.
  4. Corban, Michel T.; Duarte-Garcia, Ali; McBane, Robert D.; Matteson, Eric L.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir (2017). "Antiphospholipid Syndrome". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 69 (18): 2317–2330. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2017.02.058. ISSN 0735-1097.