Ivabradine

Jump to: navigation, search
Ivabradine
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Martin Nino [2]

Disclaimer

WikiDoc MAKES NO GUARANTEE OF VALIDITY. WikiDoc is not a professional health care provider, nor is it a suitable replacement for a licensed healthcare provider. WikiDoc is intended to be an educational tool, not a tool for any form of healthcare delivery. The educational content on WikiDoc drug pages is based upon the FDA package insert, National Library of Medicine content and practice guidelines / consensus statements. WikiDoc does not promote the administration of any medication or device that is not consistent with its labeling. Please read our full disclaimer here.

Overview

Ivabradine is a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker that is FDA approved for the prevention of hospitalization for worsening heart failure in patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, who are in sinus rhythm with resting heart rate ≥ 70 beats per minute and either are on maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers or have a contraindication to beta-blocker use. Common adverse reactions include bradycardia, hypertension, atrial fibrillation and luminous phenomena (phosphenes) ( ≥ 1%).

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult) in the drug label.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric) in the drug label.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Contraindications

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Contraindications in the drug label.

Warnings

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Warnings' in the drug label.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Clinical Trials Experience in the drug label.

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Postmarketing Experience in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Drug Interactions in the drug label.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): There is no FDA guidance on usage of Ivabradine in women who are pregnant.
Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Ivabradine in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Ivabradine during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine in women who are nursing.

Pediatric Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine in pediatric settings.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine in geriatric settings.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Ivabradine in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Ivabradine in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Administration in the drug label.

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Monitoring in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding the compatibility of Ivabradine and IV administrations.

Overdosage

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine overdosage. If you suspect drug poisoning or overdose, please contact the National Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) immediately.

Pharmacology

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Pharmacology in the drug label.

Mechanism of Action

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Mechanism of Action in the drug label.

Structure

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Structure in the drug label.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Pharmacodynamics in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Pharmacokinetics in the drug label.

Nonclinical Toxicology

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Nonclinical Toxicology in the drug label.

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Clinical Studies in the drug label.

How Supplied

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine How Supplied in the drug label.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Patient Counseling Information in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Ivabradine interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor regarding the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Brand Names in the drug label.

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Ivabradine Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Adult=======Indications====== Ivabradine is indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure in patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, who are in sinus rhythm with resting heart rate ≥ 70 beats per minute and either are on maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers or have a contraindication to beta-blocker use.

Dosage

The recommended starting dose of Ivabradine is 5 mg twice daily with meals. Assess patient after two weeks and adjust dose to achieve a resting heart rate between 50 and 60 beats per minute (bpm) as shown in Table 1. Thereafter, adjust dose as needed based on resting heart rate and tolerability. The maximum dose is 7.5 mg twice daily.

In patients with a history of conduction defects, or other patients in whom bradycardia could lead to hemodynamic compromise, initiate therapy at 2.5 mg twice daily before increasing the dose based on heart rate.

  • Table 1. Dose Adjustment
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

|offLabelAdultGuideSupport=Stable angina, chronic, in combination with beta-blocker therapy [1] [2] |offLabelAdultNoGuideSupport=There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Ivabradine in adult patients. |fdaLIADPed=Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. |offLabelPedGuideSupport=There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Ivabradine in pediatric patients. |offLabelPedNoGuideSupport=There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Ivabradine in pediatric patients. |contraindications=Ivabradine is contraindicated in patients with:

|warnings=:*Fetal Toxicity Ivabradine may cause fetal toxicity when administered to a pregnant woman based on findings in animal studies. Embryo-fetal toxicity and cardiac teratogenic effects were observed in fetuses of pregnant rats treated during organogenesis at exposures 1 to 3 times the human exposures (AUC(0-24hr)) at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). Advise females to use effective contraception when taking Ivabradine.

Ivabradine increases the risk of atrial fibrillation. In SHIFT, the rate of atrial fibrillation was 5.0% per patient-year in patients treated with Ivabradine and 3.9% per patient-year in patients treated with placebo. Regularly monitor cardiac rhythm. Discontinue Ivabradine if atrial fibrillation develops.

Bradycardia, sinus arrest, and heart block have occurred with Ivabradine. The rate of bradycardia was 6.0% per patient-year in patients treated with Ivabradine (2.7% symptomatic; 3.4% asymptomatic) and 1.3% per patient-year in patients treated with placebo. Risk factors for bradycardia include sinus node dysfunction, conduction defects (e.g., 1st or 2nd degree atrioventricular block, bundle branch block), ventricular dyssynchrony, and use of other negative chronotropes (e.g., digoxin, diltiazem, verapamil, amiodarone). Concurrent use of verapamil or diltiazem will increase Ivabradine exposure, may themselves contribute to heart rate lowering, and should be avoided. Avoid use of Ivabradine in patients with 2nd degree atrioventricular block, unless a functioning demand pacemaker is present. |clinicalTrials=Clinically significant adverse reactions that appear in other sections of the labeling include:

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT), safety was evaluated in 3260 patients treated with Ivabradine and 3278 patients given placebo. The median duration of Ivabradine exposure was 21.5 months.

The most common adverse drug reactions in the SHIFT trial are shown in Table 2.

  • Table 2. Adverse Drug Reactions with Rates ≥ 1.0% Higher on Ivabradine than Placebo occurring in > 1% on Ivabradine in SHIFT
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Phosphenes are phenomena described as a transiently enhanced brightness in a limited area of the visual field, halos, image decomposition (stroboscopic or kaleidoscopic effects), colored bright lights, or multiple images (retinal persistency). Phosphenes are usually triggered by sudden variations in light intensity. Ivabradine can cause phosphenes, thought to be mediated through Ivabradine’s effects on retinal photoreceptors. Onset is generally within the first 2 months of treatment, after which they may occur repeatedly. Phosphenes were generally reported to be of mild to moderate intensity and led to treatment discontinuation in < 1% of patients; most resolved during or after treatment. |postmarketing=Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Ivabradine: syncope, hypotension, angioedema,erythema, rash, pruritus, urticaria, vertigo, diplopia, and visual impairment. |drugInteractions=:*Cytochrome P450-Based Interactions Ivabradine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors increases Ivabradine plasma concentrations, and use of CYP3A4 inducers decreases them. Increased plasma concentrations may exacerbate bradycardia and conduction disturbances.

The concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. Examples of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors include azole antifungals (e.g., itraconazole), macrolide antibiotics (e.g., clarithromycin, telithromycin), HIV protease inhibitors (e.g., nelfinavir), and nefazodone.

Avoid concomitant use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when using Ivabradine. Examples of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors include diltiazem, verapamil, and grapefruit juice.

Avoid concomitant use of CYP3A4 inducers when using Ivabradine. Examples of CYP3A4 inducers include St. John’s wort, rifampicin, barbiturates, and phenytoin.

Most patients receiving Ivabradine will also be treated with a beta-blocker. The risk of bradycardia increases with concomitant administration of drugs that slow heart rate (e.g., digoxin, amiodarone, beta-blockers). Monitor heart rate in patients taking Ivabradine with other negative chronotropes.

Ivabradine dosing is based on heart rate reduction, targeting a heart rate of 50 to 60 beats per minute. Patients with demand pacemakers set to a rate ≥ 60 beats per minute cannot achieve a target heart rate < 60 beats per minute, and these patients were excluded from clinical trials. The use of Ivabradine is not recommended in patients with demand pacemakers set to rates ≥ 60 beats per minute. |FDAPregCat=N |useInPregnancyFDA=:*Risk Summary

Based on findings in animals, Ivabradine may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Ivabradine in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of Ivabradine to pregnant rats during organogenesis at a dosage providing 1 to 3 times the human exposure (AUC(0-24hr)) at the MRHD resulted in embryo-fetal toxicity and teratogenicity manifested as abnormal shape of the heart, interventricular septal defect, and complex anomalies of primary arteries. Increased postnatal mortality was associated with these teratogenic effects in rats. In pregnant rabbits, increased post-implantation loss was noted at an exposure (AUC(0-24hr)) 5 times the human exposure at the MRHD. Lower doses were not tested in rabbits. The background risk of major birth defects for the indicated population is unknown. The estimated background risk of major birth defects in the U.S. general population is 2 to 4%, however, and the estimated risk of miscarriage is 15 to 20% in clinically recognized pregnancies. Advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to the fetus.

  • Clinical Considerations
  • Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk

Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. Pregnant patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 35% on maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers may be particularly heart-rate dependent for augmenting cardiac output. Therefore, pregnant patients who are started on Ivabradine, especially during the first trimester, should be followed closely for destabilization of their congestive heart failure that could result from heart rate slowing.

Monitor pregnant women with chronic heart failure in 3rd trimester of pregnancy for preterm birth.

  • Data
  • Animal Data

In pregnant rats, oral administration of Ivabradine during the period of organogenesis (gestation day 6-15) at doses of 2.3, 4.6, 9.3, or 19 mg/kg/day resulted in fetal toxicity and teratogenic effects. Increased intrauterine and post-natal mortality and cardiac malformations were observed at doses ≥ 2.3 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC(0-24hr)). Teratogenic effects including interventricular septal defect and complex anomalies of major arteries were observed at doses ≥ 4.6 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC(0-24hr)).

In pregnant rabbits, oral administration of Ivabradine during the period of organogenesis (gestation day 6-18) at doses of 7, 14, or 28 mg/kg/day resulted in fetal toxicity and teratogenicity. Treatment with all doses ≥ 7 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC(0-24hr)) caused an increase in post-implantation loss. At the high dose of 28 mg/kg/day (approximately 15 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC(0-24hr)), reduced fetal and placental weights were observed, and evidence of teratogenicity (ectrodactylia observed in 2 of 148 fetuses from 2 of 18 litters) was demonstrated.

In the pre- and postnatal study, pregnant rats received oral administration of Ivabradine at doses of 2.5, 7, or 20 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 to lactation day 20. Increased postnatal mortality associated with cardiac teratogenic findings was observed in the F1 pups delivered by dams treated at the high dose (approximately 15 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC(0-24hr)). |useInNursing=:*Risk Summary

There is no information regarding the presence of Ivabradine in human milk, the effects of Ivabradine on the breastfed infant, or the effects of the drug on milk production. Animal studies have shown, however, that Ivabradine is present in rat milk. Because of the potential risk to breastfed infants from exposure to Ivabradine, breastfeeding is not recommended.

  • Data

Lactating rats received daily oral doses of [14C]-Ivabradine (7 mg/kg) on post-parturition days 10 to 14; milk and maternal plasma were collected at 0.5 and 2.5 hours post-dose on day 14. The ratios of total radioactivity associated with [14C]-Ivabradine or its metabolites in milk vs. plasma were 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, indicating that Ivabradine is transferred to milk after oral administration. |useInPed=Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. |useInGeri=No pharmacokinetic differences have been observed in elderly (≥ 65 years) or very elderly (≥ 75 years) patients compared to the overall population. However, Ivabradine has only been studied in a limited number of patients ≥ 75 years of age. |useInRenalImpair=No dosage adjustment is required for patients with creatinine clearance 15 to 60 mL/min. No data are available for patients with creatinine clearance below 15 mL/min. |useInHepaticImpair=No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Ivabradine is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) as it has not been studied in this population and an increase in systemic exposure is anticipated. |useInReproPotential=:*Contraception

  • Females

Ivabradine may cause fetal harm, based on animal data. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during Ivabradine treatment. |overdose=Overdose may lead to severe and prolonged bradycardia. In the event of bradycardia with poor hemodynamic tolerance, temporary cardiac pacing may be required. Supportive treatment, including intravenous (IV) fluids, atropine, and intravenous beta-stimulating agents such as isoproterenol, may be considered. |drugBox=

Iva1.png
Iva2.png
Ivabradine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3-[3-({[(7S)-3,4-dimethoxybicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-7-yl]methyl}(methyl)amino)propyl]-7,8-dimethoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepin-2-one
Identifiers
CAS number 155974-00-8
ATC code C01EB17
PubChem 132999
Chemical data
Formula C27H36N2O5 
Mol. mass 468.585 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 40%
Protein binding 70%
Metabolism Hepatic (first-pass) >50%, CYP3A4-mediated
Half life 2 hours
Excretion Renal and fecal
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

EU

Pregnancy cat.

D(AU)

Legal status

POM(UK)

Routes Oral

|mechAction=Ivabradine blocks the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel responsible for the cardiac pacemaker If current, which regulates heart rate. In clinical electrophysiology studies, the cardiac effects were most pronounced in the sinoatrial (SA) node, but prolongation of the AH interval has occurred on the surface ECG, as has PR interval prolongation. There was no effect on ventricular repolarization and no effects on myocardial contractility.

Ivabradine can also inhibit the retinal current Ih. Ih is involved in curtailing retinal responses to bright light stimuli. Under triggering circumstances (e.g., rapid changes in luminosity), partial inhibition of Ih by Ivabradine may underlie the luminous phenomena experienced by patients. Luminous phenomena (phosphenes) are described as a transient enhanced brightness in a limited area of the visual field. |structure=The chemical name for Ivabradine is 3-(3-{[((7S)-3,4-Dimethoxybicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-7-yl)methyl] methyl amino} propyl)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dimethoxy-2H-3-benzazepin-2-one, hydrochloride. The molecular formula is C27H36N2O5, HCl, and the molecular weight (free base + HCl) is 505.1 (468.6 + 36.5). The chemical structure of Ivabradine is shown in Figure 1.

  • Figure 1. Chemical Structure of Ivabradine
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.


  • Inactive Ingredients

|PD=Ivabradine causes a dose-dependent reduction in heart rate. The size of the effect is dependent on the baseline heart rate (i.e., greater heart rate reduction occurs in subjects with higher baseline heart rate). At recommended doses, heart rate reduction is approximately 10 bpm at rest and during exercise. Analysis of heart rate reduction vs. dose indicates a plateau effect at doses > 20 mg twice daily. In a study of subjects with preexisting conduction system disease (first- or second-degree AV block or left or right bundle branch block) requiring electrophysiologic study, IV Ivabradine (0.20 mg/kg) administration slowed the overall heart rate by approximately 15 bpm, increased the PR interval (29 msec), and increased the AH interval (27 msec).

Ivabradine does not have negative inotropic effects. Ivabradine increases the uncorrected QT interval with heart rate slowing but does not cause rate-corrected prolongation of QT. |PK=:*Absorption and Bioavailability

Following oral administration, peak plasma Ivabradine concentrations are reached in approximately 1 hour under fasting conditions. The absolute oral bioavailability of Ivabradine is approximately 40% because of first-pass elimination in the gut and liver.

Food delays absorption by approximately 1 hour and increases plasma exposure by 20% to 40%. Ivabradine should be taken with meals.

Ivabradine is approximately 70% plasma protein bound, and the volume of distribution at steady state is approximately 100 L.

The pharmacokinetics of Ivabradine are linear over an oral dose range of 0.5 mg to 24 mg. Ivabradine is extensively metabolized in the liver and intestines by CYP3A4-mediated oxidation. The major metabolite is the N-desmethylated derivative (S 18982), which is equipotent to Ivabradine and circulates at concentrations approximately 40% that of Ivabradine. The N-desmethylated derivative is also metabolized by CYP3A4. Ivabradine plasma levels decline with a distribution half-life of 2 hours and an effective half-life of approximately 6 hours.

The total clearance of Ivabradine is 24 L/h, and renal clearance is approximately 4.2 L/h, with ~ 4% of an oral dose excreted unchanged in urine. The excretion of metabolites occurs to a similar extent via feces and urine.

  • Drug Interactions

The effects of coadministered drugs (CYP3A4 inhibitors, substrates, inducers, and other concomitantly administered drugs) on the pharmacokinetics of Ivabradine were studied in several single- and multiple-dose studies. Pharmacokinetic measures indicating the magnitude of these interactions are presented in Figure 2.

  • Figure 2. Impact of Coadministered Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of Corlanor
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Digoxin exposure did not change when concomitantly administered with Ivabradine. No dose adjustment is required when Ivabradine is concomitantly administered with digoxin.

Ivabradine, dosed at 10 mg twice daily to steady state, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of metformin (an organic cation transporter [OCT2] sensitive substrate). The geometric mean (90% confidence interval [CI]) ratios of Cmax and AUC(inf) of metformin, with and without Ivabradine were 0.98 [0.83–1.15] and 1.02 [0.86–1.22], respectively. No dose adjustment is required for metformin when administered with Ivabradine.

  • Specific Populations
  • Age

No pharmacokinetic differences (AUC or Cmax) have been observed between elderly (≥ 65 years) or very elderly (≥ 75 years) patients and the overall patient population.

In patients with mild (Child-Pugh A) and moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment, the pharmacokinetics of Ivabradine were similar to that in patients with normal hepatic function. No data are available in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C).

Renal impairment (creatinine clearance from 15 to 60 mL/min) has minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of Ivabradine. No data are available for patients with creatinine clearance below 15 mL/min.

  • Pediatrics

The pharmacokinetics of Ivabradine have not been investigated in patients < 18 years of age. |nonClinToxic=======Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility====== There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when mice and rats received Ivabradine up to 104 weeks by dietary administration. High doses in these studies were associated with mean Ivabradine exposures of at least 37 times higher than the human exposure (AUC(0-24hr)) at the MRHD.

Ivabradine tested negative in the following assays: bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, in vivo bone marrow micronucleus assay in both mouse and rat, in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in rats, and in vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rats. Results of the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay were equivocal at concentrations approximately 1,500 times the human Cmax at the MRHD. Ivabradine tested positive in the mouse lymphoma assays and in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rat hepatocytes at concentrations greater than 1,500 times the human Cmax at the MRHD.

Reproduction toxicity studies in animals demonstrated that Ivabradine did not affect fertility in male or female rats at exposures 46 to 133 times the human exposure (AUC(0-24hr)) at the MRHD.

Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

Reversible changes in retinal function were observed in dogs administered oral Ivabradine at total doses of 2, 7, or 24 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.6 to 50 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC(0-24hr)) for 52 weeks. Retinal function assessed by electroretinography demonstrated reductions in cone system responses, which reversed within a week post-dosing, and were not associated with damage to ocular structures as evaluated by light microscopy. These data are consistent with the pharmacological effect of Ivabradine related to its interaction with hyperpolarization-activated Ih currents in the retina, which share homology with the cardiac pacemaker If current. |clinicalStudies=:*SHIFT

The Systolic Heart failure treatment with the I(f) inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT) was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing Ivabradine and placebo in 6558 adult patients with stable NYHA class II to IV heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, and resting heart rate ≥ 70 bpm. Patients had to have been clinically stable for at least 4 weeks on an optimized and stable clinical regimen, which included maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers and, in most cases, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, spironolactone, and diuretics, with fluid retention and symptoms of congestion minimized. Patients had to have been hospitalized for heart failure within 12 months prior to study entry.

The underlying cause of CHF was coronary artery disease in 68% of patients. At baseline, approximately 49% of randomized subjects were NYHA class II, 50% were NYHA class III, and 2% were NYHA class IV. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 29%. All subjects were initiated on Ivabradine 5 mg (or matching placebo) twice daily and the dose was increased to 7.5 mg twice daily or decreased to 2.5 mg twice daily to maintain the resting heart rate between 50 and 60 bpm, as tolerated. The primary endpoint was a composite of the first occurrence of either hospitalization for worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death.

Most patients (89%) were taking beta-blockers, with 26% on guideline-defined target daily doses. The main reasons for not receiving the target beta-blocker doses at baseline were hypotension (45% of patients not at target), fatigue (32%), dyspnea (14%), dizziness (12%), history of cardiac decompensation (9%), and bradycardia (6%). For the 11% of patients not receiving any beta-blocker at baseline, the main reasons were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypotension, and asthma. Most patients were also taking ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II antagonists (91%), diuretics (83%), and anti-aldosterone agents (60%). Few patients had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (3.2%) or a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device (1.1%). Median follow-up was 22.9 months. At 1 month, 63%, 26%, and 8% of Ivabradine-treated patients were taking 7.5, 5, and 2.5 mg BID, whereas 3% had withdrawn from the drug, primarily for bradycardia.

SHIFT demonstrated that Ivabradine reduced the risk of the combined endpoint of hospitalization for worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death based on a time-to-event analysis (hazard ratio: 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75, 0.90, p < 0.0001) (Table 3). The treatment effect reflected only a reduction in the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure; there was no favorable effect on the mortality component of the primary endpoint. In the overall treatment population, Ivabradine had no statistically significant benefit on cardiovascular death.

  • Table 3. SHIFT – Incidence of the Primary Composite Endpoint and Components
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Corlanor: Ivabradine's Brand name

The Kaplan-Meier curve (Figure 3) shows time to first occurrence of the primary composite endpoint of hospitalization for worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death in the overall study.

  • Figure 3. SHIFT: Time to First Event of Primary Composite Endpoint
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Corlanor: Ivabradine's Brand name

A wide range of demographic characteristics, baseline disease characteristics, and baseline concomitant medications were examined for their influence on outcomes. Many of these results are shown in Figure 4. Such analyses must be interpreted cautiously, as differences can reflect the play of chance among a large number of analyses.

Most of the results show effects consistent with the overall study result. Ivabradine's benefit on the primary endpoint in SHIFT appeared to decrease as the dose of beta-blockers increased, with little if any benefit demonstrated in patients taking guideline-defined target doses of beta-blockers.

  • Figure 4. Effect of Treatment on Primary Composite Endpoint in Subgroups
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Corlanor: Ivabradine's Brand name

Note: The figure above presents effects in various subgroups, all of which are baseline characteristics. The 95% confidence limits that are shown do not take into account the number of comparisons made, and may not reflect the effect of a particular factor after adjustment for all other factors. Apparent homogeneity or heterogeneity among groups should not be over-interpreted.

BEAUTIFUL was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 10,917 adult patients with coronary artery disease, impaired left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction < 40%) and resting heart rate ≥ 60 bpm. Patients had stable symptoms of heart failure and/or angina for at least 3 months, and were receiving conventional cardiovascular medications at stable doses for at least 1 month. Beta-blocker therapy was not required, nor was there a protocol mandate to achieve any specific dosing targets for patients who were taking beta-blockers. Patients were randomized 1:1 to Ivabradine or placebo at an initial dose of 5 mg twice daily with the dose increased to 7.5 mg twice daily depending on resting heart rate and tolerability. The primary endpoint was the composite of time to first cardiovascular death, hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for new-onset or worsening heart failure. Most patients were NYHA class II (61.4%) or class III (23.2%) - none were class IV. Through a median follow-up of 19 months, Ivabradine did not significantly affect the primary composite endpoint (HR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.10).

SIGNIFY was a randomized, double-blind trial administering Ivabradine or placebo to 19,102 adult patients with stable coronary artery disease but without clinically evident heart failure (NYHA class I). Beta-blocker therapy was not required. Ivabradine was initiated at a dose of 7.5 mg twice daily and the dose could be increased to as high as 10 mg twice daily or down-titrated to 5.0 mg twice daily to achieve a target heart rate of 55 to 60 bpm. The primary endpoint was a composite of the first occurrence of either cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Through a median follow-up of 24.1 months, Ivabradine did not significantly affect the primary composite endpoint (HR 1.08, 95% CI = 0.96, 1.20). |howSupplied=Ivabradine 5 mg tablets are formulated as salmon-colored, oval-shaped, film-coated tablets scored on both edges, marked with “5” on one face and bisected on the other face. They are supplied as follows:

  • Bottles of 60 tablets (NDC 55513-800-60)
  • Bottles of 180 tablets (NDC 55513-800-80)

Ivabradine 7.5 mg tablets are formulated as salmon-colored, triangular-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with “7.5” on one face and plain on the other face. They are supplied as follows:

  • Bottles of 60 tablets (NDC 55513-810-60)
  • Bottles of 180 tablets (NDC 55513-810-80)

|storage=Store at 25ºC (77ºF); excursions permitted to 15º - 30ºC (59º - 86ºF).

|packLabel=

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

|fdaPatientInfo=Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (MEDICATION GUIDE).

  • Fetal Toxicity:
  • Advise pregnant women of the potential risks to a fetus.
  • Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception and to notify their healthcare provider with a known or suspected pregnancy.
  • Low Heart Rate

Advise patients to report significant decreases in heart rate or symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, or hypotension.

Advise patients to report symptoms of atrial fibrillation, such as heart palpitations or racing, chest pressure, or worsened shortness of breath.

Advise patients about the possible occurrence of luminous phenomena (phosphenes). Advise patients to use caution if they are driving or using machines in situations where sudden changes in light intensity may occur, especially when driving at night. Advise patients that phosphenes may subside spontaneously during continued treatment with Ivabradine.

  • Drug Interactions

Advise patients to avoid ingestion of grapefruit juice and St. John’s wort.

  • Intake with Food

Advise patients to take Ivabradine twice daily with meals.

MEDICATION GUIDE

Ivabradine-Tablets

Read this Medication Guide before you start taking Ivabradine and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or your treatment.

  • What is the most important information I should know about Corlanor?

Corlanor may cause serious side effects, including:

  • Harm to your unborn baby. You should not become pregnant while taking Ivabradine. Women who are able to get pregnant must use birth control when taking Ivabradine. If you become pregnant while taking Ivabradine, tell your doctor right away.
  • Increased risk of irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation or heart rhythm problems). Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of an irregular heartbeat, such as feeling that your heart is pounding or racing (palpitations), chest pressure, or worsened shortness of breath.
  • Low heart rate (bradycardia). Tell your doctor if you have a slowing of your heart rate or if you have symptoms of a low heart rate such as dizziness, fatigue, lack of energy, or have low blood pressure. Low heart rate is a common side effect of Ivabradine and can be serious.
  • What is Ivabradine?

Ivabradine is a prescription medicine that is used to reduce the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure in people who have chronic heart failure.

  • It is not known if Ivabradine is safe and effective in children.
  • Who should not take Ivabradine?

Do not take Ivabradine if:

  • You have symptoms of heart failure that recently worsened
  • You have low blood pressure (less than 90/50 mmHg)
  • You have a certain heart condition called sick sinus syndrome, sinoatrial block, or 3rd degree atrioventricular block
  • You have a slow resting heart rate (less than 60 beats per minute) before treatment with Ivabradine
  • You are taking medicines that can change how much Ivabradine gets into your body after it is swallowed. Your doctor can advise you if you are taking a medicine that should not be used with Ivabradine.
  • What should I tell my doctor before taking Ivabradine?

Before you take Ivabradine, tell your doctor about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

  • Have any other heart problems, including heart rhythm problems, a slow heart rate, or a heart conduction problem.
  • Are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if Ivabradine passes into your breast milk. You and your doctor should decide if you will take Ivabradine or breastfeed. You should not do both.

Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Ivabradine may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect how Ivabradine works, and could cause serious side effects.

  • How should I take Ivabradine?
  • Take Ivabradine exactly as your doctor tells you to take it.
  • Your doctor may change your dose of Ivabradine during treatment.
  • If you take too much Ivabradine, call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room right away.
  • If you forget to take a dose of Ivabradine, take the next dose at the usual time. Do not take a double dose to make up for the forgotten dose.
  • What should I avoid while taking Ivabradine?

Avoid drinking grapefruit juice and taking St. John’s wort during treatment with Ivabradine. These can affect the way Ivabradine works and may cause serious side effects.

  • What are the possible side effects of Ivabradine?

See “What is the most important information I should know about Ivabradine?” The most common side effects of Ivabradine are:

  • Increased blood pressure.
  • Temporary brightness in your field of vision, usually caused by sudden changes in light (luminous phenomena). This brightness usually happens within the first 2 months of treatment with Ivabradine and usually goes away during or after treatment with Ivabradine. Use caution when driving or operating machinery where sudden changes in light can happen, especially when driving at night.

These are not all the side effects of Ivabradine. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

  • How should I store Ivabradine?
  • Store Ivabradine at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
  • Safely throw away medicine that is out of date or no longer needed.

Keep Ivabradine and all medicines out of the reach of children.

  • General information about the safe and effective use of Ivabradine

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Ivabradine for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Ivabradine to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about Ivabradine that is written for health professionals.

  • What are the ingredients in Ivabradine?
  • Active ingredient: Ivabradine
  • Inactive ingredients:
  • Core: Lactose monohydrate, maize starch, maltodextrin, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide
  • Film Coating: Hypromellose, titanium dioxide, glycerol, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, yellow iron oxide, red iron oxide

|brandNames=CORLANOR®

}}

  1. Werdan K, Ebelt H, Nuding S, Höpfner F, Hack G, Müller-Werdan U (2012). "Ivabradine in combination with beta-blocker improves symptoms and quality of life in patients with stable angina pectoris: results from the ADDITIONS study". Clin Res Cardiol. 101 (5): 365–73. doi:10.1007/s00392-011-0402-4. PMID 22231643.
  2. Tardif JC, Ponikowski P, Kahan T, ASSOCIATE Study Investigators (2009). "Efficacy of the I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine in patients with chronic stable angina receiving beta-blocker therapy: a 4-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Eur Heart J. 30 (5): 540–8. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehn571. PMC 2649284. PMID 19136486.

Linked-in.jpg