Hydroflumethiazide

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Hydroflumethiazide
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gerald Chi

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Overview

Hydroflumethiazide is a thiazide diuretic that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of hypertension and edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, corticosteroid and estrogen therapy, and renal dysfunction. Common adverse reactions include hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, orthostatic hypotension, photosensitivity, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

  • Therapy should be individualized according to patient response. This therapy should be titrated to gain maximal therapeutic response, as well as the minimal dose possible to maintain that therapeutic response.
  • Usage In Pregnancy
  • The routine use of diuretics in an otherwise healthy woman is inappropriate and exposes mother and fetus to unnecessary risk. Diuretics do not prevent development of toxemia of pregnancy, and there is no satisfactory evidence that they are useful in the treatment of developed toxemia.
  • Edema during pregnancy may arise from pathological causes or from the physiologic and mechanical consequences of pregnancy. Thiazides are indicated in pregnancy when edema is due to pathologic causes, just as they are in the absence of pregnancy. Dependent edema in pregnancy, resulting from restriction of venous return by the expanded uterus, is properly treated through elevation of the lower extremities and use of support hose. Use of diuretics to lower intravascular volume in this case is illogical and unnecessary. There is hypervolemia during normal pregnancy which is harmful to neither the fetus nor the mother (in the absence of cardiovascular disease), but which is associated with edema, including generalized edema, in the majority of pregnant women. If this edema produces discomfort, increased recumbency will often provide relief. In rare instances, this edema may cause extreme discomfort which is not relieved by rest. In these cases, a short course of diuretics may provide relief and may be appropriate.
Edema
  • Dosing Information
  • Initial Dosage
  • 50 to 200 mg daily, in 1 or 2 divided doses
  • Maintenance Dosage
  • 25 to 50 mg on alternate days or intermittently
Hypertension
  • Dosing Information
  • 25 to 50 mg daily in 1 or 2 divided doses, either alone, or in conjunction with other antihypertensive agents

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Hydroflumethiazide in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Hydroflumethiazide in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

  • Safety and effectiveness in children have not been established.
Edema
  • Dosing Information
  • A suggested initial dose for children is 1 mg/kg of body weight daily, reduced for maintenance.
Hypertension
  • Dosing Information
  • A suggested initial dose for children is 1 mg/kg of body weight daily, reduced for maintenance.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Hydroflumethiazide in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Hydroflumethiazide in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Precautions

  • All patients receiving thiazide therapy should be observed for clinical signs of fluid or electrolyte imbalance, namely, hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hypokalemia. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient is vomiting excessively or receiving parenteral fluids. Medication such as digitalis may also influence serum electrolytes. Warning signs, irrespective of cause, are: dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.
  • Hypokalemia may develop with thiazides as with any other potent diuretic, especially with brisk diuresis. when severe cirrhosis is present, or during concomitant use of corticosteroids, including ACTH.
  • Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Digitalis therapy may exaggerate the metabolic effects of hypokalemia, especially with respect to myocardial activity.
  • Any chloride deficit is generally mild and usually does not require specific treatment, except under extraordinary circumstances (as in liver disease or renal disease). Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather. Appropriate therapy is water restriction, rather than administration of salt, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life-threatening. In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice.
  • Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide therapy.
  • Insulin requirements in diabetic patients may be increased, decreased, or unchanged. Latent diabetes mellitus may become manifested during thiazide administration.
  • Thiazide drugs may increase the responsiveness to tubocurarine.
  • The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the postsympathectomy patient.
  • Thiazides may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine. This diminution is not sufficient to preclude effectiveness of the pressor agent for therapeutic use.
  • If progressive renal impairment becomes evident, as indicated by rising nonprotein nitrogen or blood urea nitrogen, a careful reappraisal of therapy is necessary with consideration given to withholding or discontinuing diuretic therapy.
  • Thiazides may decrease serum PBI levels without signs of thyroid disturbance.
  • Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics, because they reduce its renal clearance and increase the risk of lithium toxicity. Read circulars for lithium preparations before use of such concomitant therapy with Hydroflumethiazide.
Laboratory Tests
  • Periodic determination of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be performed at appropriate intervals.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

There is limited information regarding Clinical Trial Experience of Hydroflumethiazide in the drug label.

Postmarketing Experience

  • Whenever adverse reactions are moderate or severe, thiazide dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn.
  • The following adverse reactions have been observed, but there has not been enough systematic collection of data to support an estimate of their frequency.
Central Nervous System

Dizziness, vertigo, parathesias, headache, xanthopsia.

Cardiovascular

Orthostatic hypotension may occur and may be aggravated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics.

Hematologic

Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia.

Gastrointestinal

Anorexia, gastric irritation, nausea, vomiting, cramping, diarrhea, constipation, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), pancreatitis.

Hypersensitivity

Purpura, photosensitivity, rash, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (cutaneous vasculitis).

Miscellaneous

Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia, muscle spasm, weakness, restlessness.

Drug Interactions

Diagnostic Interference
  • Blood and urine glucose levels: usually only in patients with a predisposition to glucose intolerance.
  • Serum bilirubin levels: displacement from albumin binding.
  • Serum calcium levels: thiazide diuretics should be discontinued before parathyroid function tests are carried out.
  • Serum uric acid levels: may be increased.
  • Serum magnesium, potassium, and sodium levels: may be decreased, serum magnesium levels may increase in uremic patients.
  • Serum protein-bound iodine (PBI) levels: may be decreased.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category D
  • Teratogenic Effects
  • Saluron® can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. The hazards include fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions which have occurred in adults. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
  • Nonteratogenic Effects


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Hydroflumethiazide in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Hydroflumethiazide during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Thiazides appear in breast milk. If use of the drug is deemed essential, the patient may consider stopping nursing.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness in children have not been established.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Hydroflumethiazide with respect to geriatric patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Hydroflumethiazide with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Hydroflumethiazide with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Hydroflumethiazide in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Hydroflumethiazide in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Hydroflumethiazide in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Hydroflumethiazide in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Hydroflumethiazide in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Hydroflumethiazide in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

Management

  • Empty stomach by gastric lavage, taking care to avoid aspiration. Monitor serum electrolyte levels and renal function, and institute supportive measures, as required to maintain hydration, electrolyte balance, respiration, and cardiovascular and renal function. Treat GI effects symptomatically.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Hydroflumethiazide in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Hydroflumethiazide.png
Hydroflumethiazide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1,1-Dioxo-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide
Identifiers
CAS number 135-09-1
ATC code C03AA02
PubChem 3647
DrugBank DB00774
Chemical data
Formula C8H8F3N3O4S2 
Mol. mass 331.29 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism ?
Half life ?
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

?

Legal status
Routes ?

Mechanism of Action

  • The mechanism of action results in an interference with the renal tubular mechanism of electrolyte reabsorption. At maximal therapeutic dosage, all thiazides are approximately equal in their diuretic potency. The mechanism whereby thiazides function in the control of hypertension is unknown.

Structure

  • Saluron® (hydroflumethiazide) is a potent oral diuretic-antihypertensive agent of low toxicity. Each tablet contains 50 mg of hydroflumethiazide.
  • Saluron® is 2H-1,2,4-Benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide, 3,4-dihydro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-, 1,1-dioxide. Hydroflumethiazide is very slightly soluble in water, soluble in methanol and freely soluble in acetone. Inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, and sodium starch glycolate. It has the following structural formula:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Hydroflumethiazide in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Hydroflumethiazide is incompletely but fairly rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It appears to have a biphasic biological half-life with an estimated alpha-phase of about 2 hours and an estimated beta-phase of about 17 hours; it has a metabolite with a longer half-life, which is extensively bound to the red blood cells. Hydroflumethiazide is excreted in the urine; its metabolite has also been detected in the urine.

Nonclinical Toxicology

  • No long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential or impairment of fertility.

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Hydroflumethiazide in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • Saluron® Tablets, scored, 50 mg in bottles of 100.
NDC 54092-055-01
  • Store from 15° to 25°C (59° to 77°F).
  • Keep this and all medication out of the reach of children.
  • CAUTION: Federal law prohibits dispensing without prescription.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Hydroflumethiazide Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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Package and Label Display Panel

Hydroflumethiazide02.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • This medicine may cause a loss of potassium from your body. To help prevent this, your doctor may want you to:
  • Take another medicine
  • Eat or drink foods having high potassium content (such as orange or other citrus fruit juices)
  • Take a potassium supplement
  • It is very important to follow these directions. Also, it is important not to change your diet on your own. This is more important if you are already on a special diet (as for diabetes), or if you are taking a potassium supplement or a medicine to reduce potassium loss. Extra potassium may not be necessary and, in some cases, could be harmful.
  • Check with your doctor if you become sick and have severe or continuing vomiting or diarrhea. These problems may cause you to lose additional water and potassium.
  • Caution: Diabetics-Thiazide diuretics may raise blood sugar levels. While you are using this medicine, be especially careful in testing for sugar in your urine. If you have any questions about this, check with your doctor.
  • A few people who take this medicine may become more sensitive to sunlight than they are normally. When you begin to take this medicine, avoid too much sun or use of a sunlamp until you see how you react, especially if you tend to burn easily. If you have a severe reaction, check with your doctor.
  • For patients taking this medicine for high blood pressure:
  • Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes over-the-counter (nonprescription) medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus.

Precautions with Alcohol

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "Saluron (hydroflumethiazide) Tablet".
  2. "http://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)

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