Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics

Jump to: navigation, search

Altitude sickness Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Altitude Sickness from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics

CDC on Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics

Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics in the news

Blogs on Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics

Directions to Hospitals Treating Altitude sickness

Risk calculators and risk factors for Altitude sickness epidemiology and demographics

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farima Kahe M.D. [2]

Overview

The incidence of altitude sickness is approximately 53,000 per 100,000 individuals worldwide. The prevalence and mortality rate of altitude sickness depends on altitude. Patients of all age groups may develop altitude sickness. The incidence of altitude sickness increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is 26-45 years. There is no racial predilection to altitude sickness. The majority of altitude sickness cases are reported in Kilimanjaro, Everest region of Nepal.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • The incidence of altitude sickness is approximately 53,000 per 100,000 individuals worldwide.[1][2]

Prevalence

  • The prevalence of altitude sickness is approximately as following:[2][3]
    • 9000 per 100,000 individuals of people at 2850 m
    • 13000 per 100,000 individuals of people at 3050 m
    • 34000 per individuals of people at 3650 m
    • 53,000 per 100,000 individuals of people at 4559 m

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate

  • The mortality rate of altitude sickness is approximately as following:[4][5]
    • 289 per 100,000 individuals in men below 300 m of altitude
    • 242 per 100,000 individuals in men at altitudes above 1500 m
    • 104 per 100,000 individuals in women at below 300 m of altitude
    • 74 per 100,000 individuals in women at altitude 1500 to 1960 m

Age

  • Patients of all age groups may develop altitude sickness.[6]
  • The incidence of altitude sickness increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is 26-45 years.[7]

Race

  • There is no racial predilection to altitude sickness.

Gender

  • Female are more commonly affected by altitude sickness than male.[5]

Region

  • The majority of altitude sickness cases are reported in Kilimanjaro, Everest region of Nepal.[5][8]

References

  1. Hackett PH, Rennie D, Levine HD (November 1976). "The incidence, importance, and prophylaxis of acute mountain sickness". Lancet. 2 (7996): 1149–55. PMID 62991.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Murdoch D (March 2010). "Altitude sickness". BMJ Clin Evid. 2010. PMC 2907615. PMID 21718562.
  3. Mairer K, Wille M, Burtscher M (2010). "The prevalence of and risk factors for acute mountain sickness in the Eastern and Western Alps". High Alt. Med. Biol. 11 (4): 343–8. doi:10.1089/ham.2010.1039. PMID 21190503.
  4. Burtscher M (August 2014). "Effects of living at higher altitudes on mortality: a narrative review". Aging Dis. 5 (4): 274–80. doi:10.14336/AD.2014.0500274. PMID 25110611.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Taylor AT (January 2011). "High-altitude illnesses: physiology, risk factors, prevention, and treatment". Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2 (1): e0022. doi:10.5041/RMMJ.10022. PMC 3678789. PMID 23908794.
  6. MacInnis MJ, Carter EA, Freeman MG, Pandit BP, Siwakoti A, Subedi A, Timalsina U, Widmer N, Thapa GB, Koehle MS, Rupert JL (2013). "A prospective epidemiological study of acute mountain sickness in Nepalese pilgrims ascending to high altitude (4380 m)". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e75644. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075644. PMC 3794000. PMID 24130729.
  7. Tang XG, Zhang JH, Qin J, Gao XB, Li QN, Yu J, Ding XH, Huang L (2014). "Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men". Clin Interv Aging. 9: 1287–94. doi:10.2147/CIA.S67052. PMC 4128797. PMID 25120358.
  8. Peacock AJ (October 1998). "ABC of oxygen: oxygen at high altitude". BMJ. 317 (7165): 1063–6. PMC 1114067. PMID 9774298.



Linked-in.jpg