Altitude sickness differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farima Kahe M.D. [2]

Overview

Differential diagnosis

Abbreviations: ABG (arterial blood gas); ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme); BMI (body mass index); CBC (complete blood count); CSF (cerebrospinal fluid); CXR (chest X-ray); ECG (electrocardiogram); FEF (forced expiratory flow rate); FEV1 (forced expiratory volume); FVC (forced vital capacity); JVD (jugular vein distention); MCV (mean corpuscular volume); Plt (platelet); RV (residual volume); SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone); TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone); Vt (tidal volume); WBC (white blood cell);

Organ system Diseases Clinical manifestations Diagnosis Other features
Symptoms Physical exam
Loss of consciousness Agitation Weight loss Fever Chest pain Cough Cyanosis Clubbing JVD Peripheral edema Auscultation CBC ABG Imaging Spirometry Gold standard
Acute Dyspnea Respiratory system Chest and Pleura,

Lower airway

Bronchiolitis[1] - - - + +/- + - - - - Wheeze and Crackles WBC Normal Bronchovascular markings Vt Clinical assessment Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
COPD exacerbation[2] - + - + + + + +/- +/- +/- Wheeze, Rhonchi, and Crackles WBC, ↑RBC Respiratory alkalosis Hyperexpansion FEV1/FVC Clinical assessment Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB)
Lung carcinoma[3] - - + - - + + + - - Wheeze and Crackles Normal Normal Mass lesion, hilar lymphadenopathy Vt, ↑RV Bronchoscopy Paraneoplastic syndromes, such as SIADH and lambert-Eaton
Pneumonia[4] - - - + + + - - - - Wheeze, Rhonchi, and Crackles WBC, neutrophilia Normal Lobar consolidation Normal Chest X-ray and CT Scan productive cough
Cardiovascular system Pulmonary edema[5] +/- + - + + + + + + + Basal crackle Normal Respiratory alkalosis Bat wing pattern, air bronchograms Vt, ↑RV Cardiac Catheterization Tachypnea
Chronic Dyspnea Respiratory system Chest and Pleura,

Lower airway

Bronchiectasis[6] - - - + + + + + - - Rhonchi, Wheezing, Crackles WBC, neutrophilia O2, ↑CO2 Tram-track opacities FEV1/FVC High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) Chronic productive cough
Interstitial lung disease[7] - - - - + + + + - - Rhonchi, Wheezing, Crackles Normal O2, ↑CO2 Peripheral pulmonary infiltrative opacification FEV1/FVC High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) Pneumoconiosis
Sarcoidosis[8] - - +/- - +/- + + - - - Crackles Normal O2, ↑CO2 Hilar adenopathy FEV1/FVC High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) Hypercalcemia, high ACE
Alveolitis[9] - - - + + + - - - - Basal crackle WBC, neutrophilia Normal Basal reticulonodular opacification FEV1/FVC High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) Dry cough
Cystic fibrosis[10] - - + + - +/- + + - - Rhonchi, Wheezing, Crackles Normal Metabolic alkalosis Thick-walled bronchiectasis FEF75%/FVC Sweat test Absent vas deferens
Tuberculosis[11] - - + + + + +/- - - - Rhonchi, Wheezing, Crackles WBC O2, ↑CO2 Patchy consolidation or poorly defined linear and nodular opacities Restrictive, obstructive, or mixed IFN-γ release assay (IGRA)

Acid-fast staining

Night sweat
Autoimmune Wegener's granulomatosis[12] - - +/- - - + - - - - Wheezing, Crackles RBC O2, ↑CO2 Cavitate nodules, ground-glass opacity FEV1/FVC Biopsy demonstrating a granulomatous vasculitis Chronic rhinosinusitis

References

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  2. Qureshi H, Sharafkhaneh A, Hanania NA (2014). "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: latest evidence and clinical implications". Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 5 (5): 212–27. doi:10.1177/2040622314532862. PMC 4131503. PMID 25177479.
  3. Dela Cruz CS, Tanoue LT, Matthay RA (2011). "Lung cancer: epidemiology, etiology, and prevention". Clin Chest Med. 32 (4): 605–44. doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2011.09.001. PMC 3864624. PMID 22054876.
  4. Simonetti AF, Viasus D, Garcia-Vidal C, Carratalà J (2014). "Management of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults". Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2 (1): 3–16. doi:10.1177/2049936113518041. PMC 4072047. PMID 25165554.
  5. Martindale, Jennifer L.; Noble, Vicki E.; Liteplo, Andrew (2013). "Diagnosing pulmonary edema". European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 20 (5): 356–360. doi:10.1097/MEJ.0b013e32835c2b88. ISSN 0969-9546.
  6. Cantin, Luce; Bankier, Alexander A.; Eisenberg, Ronald L. (2009). "Bronchiectasis". American Journal of Roentgenology. 193 (3): W158–W171. doi:10.2214/AJR.09.3053. ISSN 0361-803X.
  7. Baughman RP, Shipley RT, Loudon RG, Lower EE (1991). "Crackles in interstitial lung disease. Comparison of sarcoidosis and fibrosing alveolitis". Chest. 100 (1): 96–101. PMID 2060395.
  8. Moher D, Cole CW, Hill GB (November 1992). "Epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysm: the effect of differing definitions". Eur J Vasc Surg. 6 (6): 647–50. PMID 1451823.
  9. Khanna D, Clements PJ, Furst DE, Chon Y, Elashoff R, Roth MD, Sterz MG, Chung J, FitzGerald JD, Seibold JR, Varga J, Theodore A, Wigley FM, Silver RM, Steen VD, Mayes MD, Connolly MK, Fessler BJ, Rothfield NF, Mubarak K, Molitor J, Tashkin DP (February 2005). "Correlation of the degree of dyspnea with health-related quality of life, functional abilities, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in patients with systemic sclerosis and active alveolitis: results from the Scleroderma Lung Study". Arthritis Rheum. 52 (2): 592–600. doi:10.1002/art.20787. PMID 15692967.
  10. Ziegler, Bruna; Rovedder, Paula Maria Eidt; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Menna-Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha (2009). "Padrões ventilatórios na espirometria em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística". Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia. 35 (9): 854–859. doi:10.1590/S1806-37132009000900006. ISSN 1806-3713.
  11. Campbell IA, Bah-Sow O (2006). "Pulmonary tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment". BMJ. 332 (7551): 1194–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7551.1194. PMC 1463969. PMID 16709993.
  12. Cardenas-Garcia J, Farmakiotis D, Baldovino BP, Kim P (2012). "Wegener's granulomatosis in a middle-aged woman presenting with dyspnea, rash, hemoptysis and recurrent eye complaints: a case report". J Med Case Rep. 6: 335. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-335. PMC 3492078. PMID 23034218.



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